1854 in science
- the Astronome French Urbain the Glassmaker is named with the direction of the Observatoire of Paris.
- the physicist Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz applies its theories to energy to the Sun: the physical phenomena are only changes in form of energy.
- the French chemist Henri Holy-Claire Deville conceives an industrial manufactoring process of aluminum.
- the French scientist Marcellin Berthelot makes the synthesis of the alcohol.
- a grocer Parisian invents the lump sugar.
- For the first time, the Quinine is employed successfully in the treatment of the Malaria.
- the German Mathématicien Bernhard Riemann exposes a nonEuclidean theory geometrical in its Papier “ Uber die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen ” which will be published only in 1868.
- Augustin Louis Cauchy develops the concept of vector Space in an article: On the algebraic keys
- Arthur Cayley gives the first definition of group abstract in article entitled: On the theory of the groups like dependence of the equation symbolic system θn = 1.
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