This page relates to the year 1850 Gregorian Calendrier.
- the population of the Ground rises to some 1,170 billion human beings.
- Eighth war kaffir directed by the prophet Xhosa Mlanjeni, that its defeat discredits (fine in 1853).
- Affrontement enters the British of the State d' Orange, directed by the major Henry Douglas Warden, and the Sotho (fine in 1852). Sotho have the advantage, and their capital, Thaba Bosiu, remains inviolate.
- Guerre enters the Imbagala of the Cassange and the Portuguese (1850 - 1851). The kingdom of Cassange bursts in microphone-States.
- Beginning of the reign of Mwezi Gisabo, king of the Burundi (fine in 1908). It completes the reforms initiated by his father Ntare Rugamba: elimination of the chiefs of chalk-linings or clans separatists, nomination of its sons more deserving with the head of the conquered areas, multiplication of the royal fields. Thanks to its various capitals, it gives at its itinerant court a glare without precedent. It creates a political structure and administrative complex.
- the sultan of the Ouadaï Mohammed Chérif is reached of an almost complete blindness. The vassal tribes benefit from it to be raised. His/her oldest son Mohammed Harir tries to reverse it, but Mohammed Chérif gives up the town of Ouara, and founds a new capital with Abéché. It is maintained with the capacity in spite of the plots, but the prosperity of Ouadaï disappears for several years.
the Yoruba king Atiba pushes back a violent one raid Peul: two of the three provinces which constitute its kingdom, Ibadan and Ijayé (he even control surface with Oyo) are in state of war. Atiba, anxious to maintain the cohesion of its country to resist Peuls, attempts to prevent the conflict.
Voyage of the French Léopold Panet in the the Western Sahara.
- German Scientific exhibition of the doctor Heinrich Barth (fine in 1855). He is the first European to describe the central delta of the Niger and cliffs of Hombori which the Dogon populate. Started from Tripoli, it arrives at Tombouctou in 1853 and remains there eight month under the protection of Sidi el Bekay, chief of the Arabs Kounta. It returns by Bourem, Gao, Ansongo and the septentrional Nigeria.
- January 29th: Henry Clay introduces Large the Compromis of 1850 to the Congrès: the South obtains the vote of the law on the fugitive slaves (September 18th); n the other hand, the California is allowed in the Union (September 9th). The Esclavage is interdict in California, but authorized with the New Mexico and in the Utah (September 20th). In November, several States of the South, joined together with Nashville, claim the secession.
- July 9th: Beginning of the Whig presidency of Millard Fillmore with the the United States (fine in 1853).
- September 9th: The California becomes it thirty-and-unième state of the American Union.
- October: The forwarding led by the admiral Robert McClure to edge of the Investigator puts in connection the Bering Sea and the Hudson Bay, forcing the Passage of the North-West (1850 - 1854).
- Beginning of the American System off Watch Manufacturing with Roxbury (Waltham Watch Company). The American System off Manufacturing is an original method of mass production of products standardized with the simple and interchangeable parts and systematic use of machine tools. The arrival in mass of Irish or German immigrants provides of the personnel, qualified or not.
- In 1850, end of the traffic of slaves towards the Brazil. Since 1775, the draft of the black slaves, touched nearly three million and half of human beings, which were torn off African continent to be controlled and sold to the Brazilian growers. The traffic interprovincial (migration of slaves of north towards the coffee plantations) compensates treats it and smuggling is replaced by the lawful trade.
- August: Creation of the British Government' Australian Colonies Act . Five Colonies (News-Wales of the South, Tasmanie, South Australia, Victoria, Queensland) receive a beginning of autonomy.
- November: Massacre sailors of the Alcmène by the Canaques in New Caledonia, which react to the intrusion of the missionaries.
- Discovered important gold layers in Australia (News-Wales and Victoria). The surge of pioneers upsets the country, from the new cities are born along the railways. The population quadruples in 20 years (405 000 inhabitants in 1850,1 600 000 in 1870).
- March 9th: Beginning of the reign of Xianfeng, emperor of China (fine in 1861).
- December: Beginning of the Rebellion Taiping in China against the dynasty Manchu (fine in 1864).
- a epizooty ten-per-cent tax cattle in Mongolia.
- Construction of the first Blast furnace intended for the production of Artillery to the Japan.
The Middle East
- May 27th: Resumption of the insurrection Persian babist in : the partisans of the Bàb, imprisoned with Tabriz, raise themselves starting from the city of the Nayriz.
- July 9th: The authorities retort by the execution of Bâb on the public place. Its young person wire, Mirza Yahta Nuri, known as Subh-i Azal, succeeds to him the head of the movement.
- February 27th: Alliance of the Four Kings. On the initiative of the Austria, the Bavaria, the Saxony, the Hanover and the Wurtemberg approach, allowing Vienna to increase its influence in the German Confederation.
- Mars: Restricted union. The Prussia and the small Neighboring states adopt with Erfurt a federal constitution.
- May 25th: New constitution in Prussia. The king imposes a fundamental law which discharges it from any responsibilities in front of the Rooms.
- July 2nd: Peace treaty of Berlin between the Prussia and the Denmark. End of the first War of the Duchies
- August 2nd: Signature of the protocol of London, which guarantees the integrity of the Denmark, which obtains Sweden and great powers, by preoccupations with a stability in Europe, that they put an end to the German influence in the duchies.
- October-November: Business of Hesse-Cassel.
- the large-duke of Hesse-Cassel, disputed by its subjects, requires the assistance of the Germanic Confédération which instructs the Bavarian army to restore it. The Prussia denies with the confederation the right to intervene in the businesses of a member of the restricted Union.
- October 12th: François-Joseph Ier of Austria meets with Bregenz the kings of Bavaria and Wurtemberg and stops a plan of countryside if Prussia would be opposed to the Bavarian intervention.
- October 25th:
- the Prussians occupy the Hesse-Cassel.
- Interview of François-Joseph and Nicolas Ier of Russia to Warsaw. The Russians support Austria.
- November 2nd: The war seems inevitable, but thanks to Felix von Schwarzenberg, a compromise succeeds: Frederic-Guillaume dissolves restricted union the while refusing to evacuate Hesse-Cassel.
- November 28th: Felix von Schwarzenberg addresses an ultimatum to Prussia.
- November 29th: Backing of Olmütz. Frederic-Guillaume IV of Prussia answers by sending its Prime Minister, the count Manteuffell to negotiate with Felix von Schwarzenberg in Olmütz (Olomouc). The agreement puts an end to the crisis (Prussia inclines itself).
- Re-establishment of the catholic episcopal hierarchy to the the United Kingdom.
- Electoral law in the Netherlands. The electorate is restricted with less 100 000 people. Laws provincial and local elections (1851) developing the autonomy of the local government agencies.
- Publication of a list of noble families géorgiennes in Russia.
- progressive Downgrading, since 1831, of most of the Polish nobility of Ukraine.
- the tariff barriers are abolished between the Austria and the Hungary.
- In Austria, the religious authorities obtain from François-Joseph the control of primary school education and the right to teach catechism in the colleges.
- the ecclesiastical Gazette Viennese is authorized with the proviso of abstaining from any political reflection.
See also: 1850 in France
- Victor-Emmanuel II of Savoy maintains the constitution liberal granted by his/her father Piedmont-Sardinia (the Statuto ), making it possible the dynasty to seem the champion of the liberal and national aspirations of the country. Not very interested by the policy, it leaves the government with its ministers of Azeglio, Rattazzi or Cavour.
- January 9th: The president of the Council Massimo d' Azeglio dissolves the Room and the elections give the victory to the moderate ones. Peace with Austria can finally be signed. The ministry of Azeglio begins on the way of the reforms. Cavour enters to the government or it cumulates the wallets of Industry, Agriculture, the Trade and the Navy, then Finances (1851).
- In March is proposed bills limiting the influence of the Church (abolition of the special courts for the clergy, tender with governmental authorization of the legacies in favor of the convents, reduction in been unemployed religious holidays). The laws are voted in spite of agitation and the tensions with Rome.
- April 6th: Foundation of the review Jesuit Civiltà Cattolica in Naples; very near to the Holy See, she is often regarded as conveying the opinion of the pope on the go concern.
- April 12th: Return to Rome of the pope, under the protection of the French.
- has Rome, the cardinal Giacomo Antonelli, Secretary of State of Pie IX, follows a policy reactionary. Being wary towards France, it does not take account of the opinions of Oudinot, incentive the pope not to destroy all the liberal institutions installation. France recommends the general amnesty, the secularization of the administration, the Code Napoleon and a liberal government. The pope refuses. The Roman question is put: France maintains a task force in Rome to protect independence from the pope, which involves an estrangement with the liberals. But the goal of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, ignored by the pope, is to make it possible the task force to make pressure on the pontifical government so that it joins again the dialog with the Italian liberals.
- brutal Reign of François V of Modena. Many liberals prefer to flee.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- August 12th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Jose Dámaso Rodríguez there Rodríguez known as “Pepete”, Spanish Matador.
- the French painter Eugene Delacroix paints the ceiling of the Large Gallery of Apollo in Louvre.
- a burial with Ornans , fabric of Billhook.
- Morning, a dance of the nymphs , fabric of Corot.
- Landscape of the forest of Fontainebleau , fabric of Theodore Rousseau.
- Creation of SACEM.
Sciences and technology
Exploration and Sports1850 in sport
- Beginning of the forwarding of the German explorer Heinrich Barth (fine in 1855).
- the British mountaineer Edward Whymper explores the the Andes and is the first to climb the Chimborazo (6310 m).
Births in 1850
- January 15th: Mihai Eminescu . Rumanian Poet († 1889).
- January 26th: Samuel Gompers, American trade unionist, first president of the American Federation off Labor.
- March 31st: Charles Doolittle Walcott, American paleontologist († 1927).
- April 16th: Sidney Gilchrist Thomas engineer British († 1885)
- June 6th: Karl Ferdinand Braun, German Physicist, Nobel Prize in 1909 († 1918).
- August 5th: Guy of Maupassant, French writer († 1893).
- August 11th: Albert Adamkiewicz, doctor germano - Polish († October 31st 1921)
- October 8th: Henry Chatelier, Chemist French († 1936).
Death in 1850
- May 1st: Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, Zoologist and anatomist French (° 1777).
- May 9th: Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac, Physicist and Chemist French
- July 9th: Zachary Taylor, President of the United States
- July 12th: Robert Stevenson, Civil engineer Scottish known to have built the Headlight Beautiful Rock'n'roll located in the the North Sea (° 1772)
- August 17th: Jose de San Martín Liberator of the Chile, the Argentinian and the Peru
- August 18th: Honore de Balzac, French novelist
- October 11th: Louise of Orleans, first queen of the Belgian (° April 3rd 1812)
- December 24th: parliamentary Frederic Bastiat French and economist (° 1801).
Beats-smg: 1850 Be-X-old: 1850 Map-bms: 1850 Simple: 1850 Zh-yue: 1850 年
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