This page relates to the year 1847 Gregorian Calendrier.
- July 26th: The Liberia becomes independent and obtains a Constitution of the North-American type, its capital is Monrovia (cf Monroe). Creation of the Bast flag inspired by that of the the United States.
December: Sir Harry Smith becomes governor of the Colonie of the Cape (fine in 1852). It develops a territorial expansion policy and of segregation with regard to the Africans.
- December 17th: The district of the Queen Adelaide takes the British name of Cafrerie.
- the Britanniques crush the tribes Xhosa, making it possible to the farmers to acquire new grounds.
- Ladislas Magyar explores the Southern Africa: it crosses the Kalahari, goes up the court of the Fleuve Congo, skirts the river Kwanza until Kwango. It reaches the kingdom of Bihé and marries the girl of a local leader, then launches out to the top Zambezi and Congo.
- February: Abd el-Kader takes refuge again with the Morocco. Bugeaud wishes to continue it but the French government opposes it. He then asks for the means of of reducing the Kabyles, but does not obtain satisfaction. One withdraws the right to him to grant concessions in civil territory and a credit of three million for military colonization.
- April 1st: Mohammed ibn “Abd Allah is captured.
- May 30th: Bugeaud resigns and is replaced by the duke of Aumale as general governor of the French Algérie (September 11th, end in 1848).
- December 23rd: Rendering of Abd El-Kader with the general Lamoricière on the condition of being transported in the East. The emir is initially led to Toulon, but the Revolution of February 1848 will defer its departure. It is interned in France in Pau, then with Amboise (1847 - 1852). The Algérie is under French domination after the tender of Abd El-Kader.
- January 30th: The liberal Lord Elgin is named general governor of the Canada (fine in 1854).
- 22 - February 23rd: Battle of Buena Vista. The general Zachary Taylor beats the Mexicans of the general Antonio López de Santa Anna in a fierce combat.
- Kearny occupies the New Mexico, then advances in California which it helps to occupy. Mexico refuses to capitulate. The the United States then send a forwarding to take Mexico City.
- In March, the American army counts a thousand of deserters (9207 on the whole during the war). The human losses will be estimated at 20% of the soldiers, died of disease or in the combat.
- March 1st: Beginning of the dictatorship of Faustin Soulouque with Haiti, guard of the Voodoo (fine in 1859).
- March 29th: Catch of Veracruz by the general Winfield Scott, who walks on Mexico City. It beats the Mexicans with Cerro Gordo, Contreras and Churubusco. It takes Casa Subdued and Molino del Rey, then walk on the hill of Chapultepec, the bolt of Mexico City, which falls in September.
- April 18th: Battle of Cerro Gordo
- June 24th: Arrival of the Mormon S, left the Illinois (1846) in the Utah, under the control of Brigham Young successor of the founder of the movement Joseph Smith and creation of Salt Lake City.
- August 15th: Mutiny of volunteers in the north of the Mexico. The rebels are pardoned to allow the return to a state of calm.
- 19 - August 20th: Bataille of Will counter.
- August 20th: Battle of Churubusco.
- September 8th: Battle of Molino del Rey.
- 12 - September 13rd: Taken hill of Chapultepec, in the South-west of Mexico City, by the troops of the United States. Santa Anna makes retirement until Huamantla, where another battle takes place which obliges it to flee again.
- September 14th: Head office of Puebla.
- September 15th: Fall of Mexico City.
- October 1st: Closing of Large forty Isle, at the Canadian border. 10 000 Irish emigrants would have perished there of disease.
- October 9th: Battle of Huamantla.
- Alexander Hunter Murray of the Compagnie of Hudson Bay founds Fort Yukon in Alaska, then Russian territory.
- Lucy Stone gives conferences on the women's right in a church of Gardner (Massachusetts).
- Brazil: the first immigrants arrive at São Paulo to work in the coffee large farms.
- Pedro II of Brazil decides more not to choose itself its ministers but to name a president of the Council which would train the ministerial team. It is a step towards the parliamentary mode.
- July, New Zealand: End of the first war maori, after three years of war. The government makes occupy of vast wide of ground maori in order to promoting colonization in an official way.
- the France lance a forwarding on the Cochinchine (Northern of the Vietnam).
- November 4th: Beginning of the reign of Tự Đức, emperor of the Vietnam. It continues the policy of Thiệu Trị (too heavy taxes, abuse notable, religious persecutions). It will cause the intervention of the France which wishes to protect the missionaries while making sure of and the outlet fulcrums in Indo-China.
- the West Indies: The island of Labuan is yielded to the Britanniques by the sultan of Brunei. The island will constitute a British naval base.
- China: The European Jésuites of the mission of “ Zikawei ” settle with Xujiahui, district of Shanghai.
The Middle East
- Persian: The revolt of the governor Salâr Al-Dawla develops, clarifies an at the same time ethnic conflict (the Turks of Azerbaïdjan become dominating in the army of the shah, support the insurrectionist) and monk (the Sunnites are opposed to the Chiites). The activity of the Bâb causes disorders which end in its arrest.
- January: Alexandre Herzen leaves the Russia
- February 3rd: The pressure of the liberal groups obliges Frederic-Guillaume Ier of Prussia to convene a Landtag made up of the deputies of the provincial diets. When the Landtag wants to be transformed into periodic Parliament, then refuses a loan with the king, this one, to the satisfaction of the small landed proprietors, it returns. The congresses of democrats multiply with the end of the year. With Offenburg, the delegates claim a national representation common to all the Germanic countries. To Heppenheim, they launch the idea of a customs Parliament within the framework of a Zollverein which would have political attributions.
- Mars: The pope Pie IX takes liberal measures. He entrusts the Censure at a commission the laic ones, establishes the Council of Ministers and a civic guard ( June).
- May: The pope following the example of, the large-duke of Toscane liberalizes the press. The king of Sardinia grants a communal reform based on the election censitaire and the Freedom of the press.
- June 8th: The day of Work the children from 13 to 18 years and that of the women is limited to 10 a.m. with the the United Kingdom.
- June 1st: First communist congress with London.
- June: With Brussels, Under the aegis of Karl Marx, the Ligue of right the (organization of the founded German emigration in 1836) takes the name of Ligue of the Communists.
- June 29th: The Convention of Gramido puts an end to the Patuleia with the Portugal. The septembrists (Sá da Bandeira, Jose Passos…) do not arrive, at the end of six months of civil war, to raise Lisbon and to impose the recognition of the juntas which had installation themselves in the remainder of the country.
- July 20th: The Diet of Suisse dissolves the Sonderbund, which then launches its troops against the Tessin and opens the civil war. Sonderbund is beaten, and the Austria, the France and the Prussia offer their mediation. The Diet adopts financial measures against the catholic cantons. Radical governments are installed in the catholic cantons and the religious congregations (including the Jésuites) are expelled of the country.
- August 3rd: Legal settlement between the Russia and the the Holy See.
- August 16th: The Austria occupies Ferrare militarily.
- October 4th: Isabelle II of Spain accepts Narvaez for minister.
- 3 - November 29th: War of Sonderbund
- November 9th: Authorization given to the Russian serfs to buy their freedom if the field of their Master is put on sale for debts (limited effects).
- November 29th, London: with the 2° Congress of the League of the Communists, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels are charged to write a “ Communist Manifesto ”.
- Charles-Albert of Piedmont, Léopold II of Tuscany and Pie IX sign the preliminaries of a customs union.
- Hungarian the progressists groups gained a decisive victory with the elections of the diet of Presbourg. The Austrian government starts by being unaware of this vote but reaches finally at the requests of the nationalists by authorizing the constitution of a Hungarian government with Batthyány like Prime Minister.
- Kossuth is elected like deputy of Pest. He becomes chief of the radicals, recommending the stamping from the peasants and the political separation of the Austria and the Hungary.
- December 23rd: The Austrians withdraw Ferrare.
- Bringing together free-Austrian to paralyze the policy of the First British liberal minister Lord Palmerston.
- criminal Code in Poland, copied on the Russian Code of 1845.
See also: 1847 in France
January 11th: Opening of the parliamentary session of 1847.
- May 30th: Bugeaud resigns of its functions of general governor of the Algérie.
- 8 - July 17th: Lawsuit in front of the Room of the pars of two former ministers, Tests and the general Despans-Cubières, accused of corruptions.
- July 9th: Beginning of the Countryside of the banquets.
- August 18th: The duke of Choiseul-Praslin assassinates his wife, girl of the marshal Sébastiani.
- September 15th: Resignation of Soult of the presidency of the Council.
- September 19th: Guizot is officially named President of the Council.
- December 23rd: Abd El-Kader goes to the Lamoricière general. It is interned at the height Lamalgue with Toulon.
- December 28th: Opening of the parliamentary session of 1848.
Chronologies sets of themes
Art & culture
- Arrived of the French ballet master Marius Petipa at Saint-Pétersbourg.
- Delacroix decorates the walls and ceilings with the living room of the King and the library with the Palate-Bourbon (1833 -1847).
- Form and Function , treated sculpture of Horatio Greenough.
- Opening of new the British Museum.
- April: The Italian politician Camillo Cavour founds his liberal newspaper It Risorgimento .
- the Fatherland , newspaper of Bettino Ricasoli.
- the Paddle , of Giuseppe Farina.
- the North Star , newspaper published with Rochester, the the United States, by the black abolitionist Douglas Frederick.
- the Kent is crowned champion of Cricket in England.
- Inauguration of the first gymnasium in Russia with Saint-Petersbourg.
Science and technology
See also: 1847 in science
Economy & Company
- Bad harvest in Austria and Germany, involving an economic crisis. Many Germans emigrate in America.
- Of many Irishmen, victims of the Great Famine, emigrate in America.
- Epidemic of Cholera in Russia (1847 - 1848).
- In Hungary, the nobility, only political community, represents 500 000 people out of 12 million inhabitants.
- future the Budapest account 120 000 inhabitants.
- Customs union enters the Austria - Hungary and the Moldavie - Valachie.
- Telegraph of Vienna to Bratislava.
Births in 1847
- February 11th: Thomas Edison, inventive states-uniens
- March 3rd: Alexandre Beautiful, inventive Graham British
- March 4th: Karl Josef Bayer, Austrian chemist
- March 22nd: Georges de Villebois-Mareuil, Colonel
- July 20th: max Liebermann, German painter
- August 18th: El Gallo (Fernando Gómez García), Spanish Matador († August 2nd 1897).
- September 5th: Jesse James, celebrates American outlaw
- October 2nd: Paul von Hindenburg, soldier and president of the Weimar Republic (1925 - 1934), German
- November 2nd: Georges Sorel Philosopher and Sociologist French
- November 8th
Death in 1847
- March 9th: Mary Anning, British paleontologist .
- March 11th: John Chapman, botanist and American pioneer (° 1774).
- May 15th: Daniel O' Connell, Irish politician called the Liberator or the Emancipator (° 1775).
- June 12th: Pierre-Simon Ballanche, French editor (° 1776).
- October 7th: Alexandre Brongniart, mineralist and naturalist French.
- November 4th: Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, type-setter.
- December 17th: Jose of los Santos, Spanish Matador (° March 10th 1806).
Beats-smg: 1847 Be-X-old: 1847 Map-bms: 1847 Simple: 1847 Zh-yue: 1847 年
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