This page relates to the year 1841 Gregorian Calendrier.
- April 25th: Mayotte becomes Protectorat French.
- May 4th: A British consulate is established with Zanzibar (Atkins Hamerton).
- the British missionary David Livingstone makes its first voyage of exploration in Africa.
- Coast-in-the Or: Countryside of the Asante against the Gonja (fine in 1844).
- Adama, disciple of Usman daN Fodio, extends its power and its field to the south-east of the Empire of Sokoto. It settles with Yola and until its death (1847) it fights the tribes animists of the north of the Cameroun and its adversary, the sultan of Mandara. It carries out the unit of the Fombina (south), which takes in its honor the name of Adamaoua. Its successors with Yola will let the emirs give up conversions, plunder the area, capture the slaves and fight themselves between them until the arrival of Europeans.
- the British government makes install with Lokoja, with the confluence of the Niger and the Bénoué, model farm to cultivate the Coton which will be a failure.
- France grants to the brothers Régis the concession of Strong Saint-Louis with Ouidah (Dahomey).
- Mohamed-Ali organizes forwardings which go up the White Nile. They make it possible to increase an important trade of black slaves captured with the Sudan and to the borders of the Congo and the Uganda.
- February 22nd: Bugeaud is named general governor of the French Algérie (end in 1847). It decides the resumption of the hostilities for a total conquest of Algeria. The manpower of the troops passes from 63 000 (1840) with close to 110 000 men. Via the “Arab office”, Bugeaud recruits autochtones and poses the first bases of the Armée with Africa. He encourages the establishment of colonies. Abd el-Kader its side is laid out of 8000 infantrymen, 2000 riders, 240 artillerists, for which it is necessary to add the irregular ones (approximately 50 000 riders and goumiers).
- In spring, the French Army gains a series of victories. It occupies Tagdempt and Mascara (the news and the old capital of the emir), then Boghar, Taza and Saïda, razziant the tribes favorable to the emir and destroying harvests and the silos with grains. Abd el-Kader calls upon the Othoman sultan in vain.
- the Bey de Tunis Ahmad Pasha chooses alliance with the France with the detriment of the Great Britain. The French influence does not cease developing.
- February 10th: The Acte of union founds the United Provinces of Canada.
- March 4th: Presidency Whig of William H. Harrison with the the United States.
- March 9th: The business of Amistad finds its term with the Supreme court of the United States, whose stop US v. Amistad is favorable to the Africans, who are released. The business still envenimé the relations between the States of North and the South.
- April 4th: Died of William Henry Harrison of pneumonia one month after the beginning of its mandate. The vice-president John Tyler succeeds to him.
- April 6th: Beginning of the presidency Whig of John Tyler with the the United States (fine in 1845). It must face the resignation of the cabinet, hostile with its banking policy.
- April: Foundation of the Brook Farm with Boston by utopians (George Ripley) who carry out a Community life shared between manual work and the intellectual reflection.
- June 13rd: The first session of the first Parlement of Canada opens with Kingston.
- July 18th: Majority of Pedro II with the Brazil. It restores the Council of State and equips its country with a code of procedure. It attempts to impose an economic expansion policy, favorable to the land and generating aristocracy of disorders.
- September 18th: The general Manual Bulnes, hero of the war, is elected president with the Chile. He opens ten years of political stability, of economic growth and cultural radiation (fine in 1851).
- November 7th: Embarked slaves on board the Creole seize the ship and put the course on the the Antilles Britanniques where slavery at summer abolished in 1833. The the United Kingdom refuses to return the slaves, who causes a diplomatic tension with the the United States.
- November: The colonists cross the Rocky Mountains.
- Persecuted by dictators like Rosas in Argentinian, of the intellectuals of all the Latin America finds refuge with the Chile, attracted in particular by the fame of the vice-chancellor of the national university, Andrés Bello.
- British Protectorate on the Coast of Mosquitos.
- statistics (published in 1844) counts the number of slaves present in the rural cultures of the French colonies, i.e. 75% of the slaves: There is 68 314 slaves in Martinique, 83 195 with the Guadeloupe, 12 608 in Guyana and 52 316 in the island Bourbon (Meeting).
- January 20th, China: First occupation of Hong-Kong by the the United Kingdom.
- January: Whereas the negotiations continue, the British seize the fortresses outside Humen.
- In May, they occupy HongKong where violent incidents oppose them to Chinese crowd.
- From August at October, the British fleet seizes many cities along the Yangzi Jiang. The British obtain for the first time the diplomatic equality and the concession of HongKong. The agreement is denounced and the engagements begin again.
- February 14th: Beginning of the reign of Thiệu Trị, emperor of the Vietnam of the Dynasty Nguyễn. Like its predecessor Minh Mang, it accentuates centralization, which will cause disorders when the economic difficulties accumulate.
September 24th: The sultan of Brunei reward James Brooke, an English adventurer who had helped it to crush rebels, by giving him grounds and the title of rajah of Sarawak. Brooke and its successors, the “white rajahs”, widen their territory to the current borders of Sarawak.
November 2nd, Afghanistan: Akbar Khan, a son of Dost Mohammad, carries out a victorious revolt against Shah Shuja, and the garrisons anglo-Indians stationed in the country. The British are driven out of Kabul in January 1842.
- a Kampuchean party turns to the Siam to release itself from the supervision Vietnamese. After an undecided war, the devastated country becomes the vassal one of its two neighbors (1844).
Japan: The minister Mizuno Tadakuni (1794 - 1851) lance of the reforms (known as of the Era Tenpō) in the intention to reinforce the order and the country condition: limitation of the extravagant expenditure, censures increased on licentious works, dissolution of the corporations of merchants held for persons in charge of inflation.
The Antarctic, Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East & Arab World
- July 13rd: Convention of London bearing on the Straits and Egypt. The Egypt loses the Syria for the benefit of the Othoman Turkey after the intervention of the European powers (Treated of London, July 15th 1840).
- the Egypt obtains an autonomous statute of province under the formal authority of the Othoman Sultan. The government of the country is recognized hereditary in the family of Méhémet Ali with the title of viceroy. The entourage of the viceroys remains before very Turkish-speaking.
September: With the Lebanon, conflict between Druzes and Maronites due to the Franco-British competitions and the Othoman policy: the Druzes, supported by the English, are exempted tribute that the Maronites, supported by France, must pay the sultan.
the creation of the station of great Rabbinate of Jerusalem is one of the direct consequences of the Affaire of Damas,
- April 13rd: Resignation of the liberal cabinet of Joseph Lebeau, in Belgium, following the debates on teaching and the Church. Beginning of the cabinet of coalition liberal and catholic of Jean-Baptiste Nothomb (fine in 1845).
July 13rd: Treaty of London: An international convention on the Straits, signed with London between the five powers (England, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia), balance definitively the question of the East: it closes the the Bosphorus with all the men-of-war and confirms the hereditary sovereignty of Méhémet-Ali on Egypt.
- popular Rising in Crete directed against the return of the Othoman domination pursuant to the agreements concluded by the Quadruple Alliance and the France at the time of the conference of London of July 13rd.
- August 30th: Fall of the liberal ministry Melbourne. Beginning of the ministry whig of Sir Robert Peel, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1846). The conservative Robert Peel, chief of a party favorable to protectionism, begins nevertheless a policy of reduction of the import taxes. He must face the movement chartist which is restructured by melting the National Charter Association .
- December 20th: Franco-British convention concerning the right of access of the ships.
- the Council of State east dissolves in Poland. The tsar returns on the organic statute of 1832. Legal institutions, like the Court of Appeal, its removed, as well as the Polish currency.
- Russia: Deportation in Transcaucasia of the members of the sect of the Doukhobors. Country rising in Gourie.
See also: 1841 in France
- March 22nd: Law on the child work in manufactures.
- April 3rd: Law assigning a credit of 140 million to the construction of the fortifications of Paris.
- May 31st: Execution of Darmès, author of the assassination attempt of the October 15th 1840.
- July: Disorders with Toulouse aiming at preventing the tax census ordered by the Minister for Finance, Humann in order to reform the plate of the Tax on the doors and windows. Others turbid take place during the summer with Bordeaux, Villeneuve-sur-Lot, Céret, Lille (August), Clermont-Ferrand (September).
- 11 - September 18th: Disorders in Paris. The September 13rd, an extremist, Quenisset, car a blow of gun on the duke of Aumale.
- December 27th: Opening of the parliamentary session of 1842.
Chronologies sets of themes
Art & culture
- Pesti Hírlap , liberal newspaper of Kossuth (Hungary).
- the Muscovite , body Slavophile of Pogodine.
- Pauline Ono , portrait of Millet.
- Russia: Official adoption of the style Russo-Byzantine of Tuna in the construction of the churches and the public buildings.
Science and technology
See also: 1841 in science
Economy & Company
- July 5th: The British Thomas Cook invents the first Travel agency.
- September 19th: Inauguration of the first international railway line in Europe: Strasbourg - Basle.
- Connections of Prague to Dresden by the vapor Bohemia .
- Establishment of a service of national Station to the the United Kingdom under the aegis to sir Rowland Hill.
- Easing of the customs tariff in Russia.
Births in 1841
- January 14th: Berthe Morisot, French painter
- January 23rd: Constant Coquelin, French actor
- January 28th: Henry Morton Stanley, exploring continent of Africa
- January 30th: Felix Faure future president of the French Republic
- February 12th: Gijsbert van Tienhoven, Dutch politician
- February 25th: Pierre-Auguste Renoir, painter and sculptor French
- April 2nd: Clement Ader, inventor and manufacturer, precursor of the plane († 1925).
- May 22nd: Catulle Mendès, French writer
- September 8th: Antonín Dvořák, Violin ist, organist, altist, director of the academy of Prague, type-setter († May 1st 1904).
- September 28th: Georges Clémenceau, French statesman
- October 16th: Hirobumi Itō, Japanese politician
- November 6th: Armand Fallières future president of the French Republic
- November 9th: Edouard VIII, future king of the United Kingdom
- November 20th: Wilfrid Bay-tree, future Prime Minister of Canada
- November 27th: Lagartijo (Rafael Molina Sánchez), Spanish Matador († 1900).
- December 6th: Jean-Frederic Bazille, French painter
Death in 1841
- February 17th: Ferdinando Carulli, type-setter and Italian guitarist (° 1770)
- January 15th: Arend Friedrich August Wiegmann, German zoologist (° 1802).
- March 16th: Felix Savart, physicist (° 1791).
- April 4th: William Henry Harrison, President of the United States.
- April 29th: Aloysius Bertrand, romantic poet (Louis Bertrand, ° 1807).
- June 1st: Nicolas Appert, inventive French (° November 17th 1749).
- July 15th: The Russian novelist Lermontov is killed in duel (° 1814).
- September 9th: Augustin Pyrame de Candolle, Swiss botanist (° 1778).
- November 5th: Martin Michel Charles Gaudin, duke of Gaète, Politician French, Minister for Finance of the Consulate and the Empire. (° January 16th 1756).
- November 9th: Victor Audouin, naturalist, entomologist and ornithologist French (° 1797)
- November 23rd: Watanabe Kazan, painter and well-read man Japanese (° 1793). Condemned to died to have asked for the development of relations with the foreign countries, then assigned in residence forced on its grounds, it commits suicide.
Beats-smg: 1841 Be-X-old: 1841 Map-bms: 1841 Simple: 1841 Zh-yue: 1841 年
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