This page relates to the year 1838 Gregorian Calendrier.
- 12 - January 13rd: naval Action of Islay between the Peru and the Chile.
- January 26th: The Tennessee adopts the first law of Prohibition against alcohol with the the United States.
- April 30th: The Nicaragua declares its independence with respect to the plain Provinces of Central America.
- May 26th: Growers of the South of the United States, under the aegis of Andrew Jackson, obtain the displacement of 17  legally; 000 Cherokee S, which in spite of the opposition of the supreme court will be parked in envoy and concentration camps to foot of Georgia in Oklahoma during the winter (December). Four thousand of them perish (Piste of the Tears). Choctaw, Creek and Chickasaw has already sudden the same fate. The Séminoles resist longer in marrais of Florida.
- November 5th: The Honduras leaves the Fédération. Beginning of the civil war in Central America.
- November 27th - December 5th: Battle of San Juan de Ulúa. War of pastry making between the France and the Mexico.
October 24th: The president Oribe is reversed in Uruguay. Will rivet, Chef colorados (liberal) seizes the power with the detriment of the blancos (preserving). With supports Argentine of Rosas, Oribe undertakes the Guerra Grande (1839 - 1851).
- December, Brazil: Rising Balaiada with the Maranhão crushed by the duke of Caxias (1841).
- January 14th: The rebellious of High-Canada leave Navy Island and take refuge with the the United States where Mackenzie is stopped.
- February 10th: The British Parliament suspends the constitution of the Low-Canada.
- February 26th: Raid of the Patriots with Potton, in Canton-of-L' Is.
- February 26th: Robert Nelson proclaims the independence of the Low-Canada to Potton.
- May 28th: Lord Durham is named general governor of British North America and High-Commissioner to inquire into the Rébellion (fine the November 1st).
- June 28th: Proclamation of amnesty for all the prisoners except eight chiefs who are exiled with the Bermuda.
- November 3rd: The “brothers hunters”, movement clandestine which continues the fight of the Patriots, mobilize themselves in various points of the Montérégie (Beauharnois, Holy-Martine, Saint-Mathias).
- November 4th: New proclamation of the martial law.
- November 5th: The Patriots of Beauharnois seize the steamer “Brougham”.
- November 7th: Demolished “Brothers hunters” with the Battle of Lacolle.
- November 9th: The brothers hunters attack cut off Loyal supporters with Odelltown, but they must be withdrawn at the end of two hours of combat. End of the insurrection. Escape of Robert Nelson in the United States.
- 12 - November 16th: Demolished insurrectionists of the High-Canada come from the United States to the Battle of Windmill.
- November 27th: Institution of a martial court in order to judge 108 marked.
- the arrival of missionaries catholic and protesting in the post offices of the draft of the Compagnie of Hudson Bay supports their settlement (1838 - 1839). The mission of Saint-Albert, close to Edmonton, will count some 700 people in 1870, primarily of origin free-Indian.
- June 10th, Australia: Massacre Aborigènes by colonists with Myall Creek, a pastoral field of Nouvelle Wales of the South. For the first time, the murderers are stopped, considered and hung on order of the crown. This judgment, which scandalizes the colonists, remains the exception and the exactions continue.
- New Zealand: The multiplication of the bloody wars with the Maori decides the the United Kingdom to organize the colonization of the country.
- Occupation of strong Ethiopic of Métemma by the Egyptians.
- Raid Egyptians in Ethiopia since Gallabat. He profane the churches. The population of Gondar is frightened.
- the Ethiopia is explored and charted by Antoine d' Abbadie d' Arrast (fine in 1848).
- the French Bouet-Willaumez occupies Assinie and Bassam on the coast of Male-People (Ivory Coast). It signs with the local leaders a pact who place them under the authority of Louis-Philippe Ier, with which they yield their grounds. In exchange, France militarily supports them in their conflict with the Ebrié.
- Thomas Hutton, commander mulatto of Gold Coast, settles with Ouidah to make the trade of Palm oil.
- Algeria: Abd el-Kader undertakes the administrative reorganization of its territory, which and divided into caliphates, by respecting the tribal political organization. Abd el-Kader shares its decision-making power with the assembled tribal one only with regard to the control of the holy war.
- 4 - February 17th: Having failed to obtain by the trick of the grounds belonging to the Zulu chief Dingaan, Boer Piet Retief is carried out. Dingaan makes massacre nearly 360 Boers.
- December 4th: The Britanniques occupy Port-Native until the Christmas day before 1839.
- December 16th: The Boer S under the control of their chief Andries Pretorius demolish the Zoulous with the Bataille Blood River in the Natal. The Zoulouland becomes Boer protectorate. The power Zulu seems destroyed. Mpandé, half-brother and successor of Dingaan, does not dare to make the war.
- Beginning of the reign of Mzilikazi, king of the Matabélé (fine in 1868). It installs initially the capital of Matabélé with Gibixhegu, then after having massacred its principal indumas (lieutenants) for treason, with Inyati. The military and administrative system of the new State borrows its characteristics from that of the Zulu.
- Reform of the prazos to the Mozambique (ordinances of 1838, 1841 and 1854). The prazeros become official representatives of the government of Lisbon, with the rank of captains of fortress, of decorations and the honorary titles. The system persists, with its abuses, until the end of the century.
The Middle East
- July: Declaration austro-Russian of Teplits supporting the Turkey in its conflict with the Egypt.
- August 14th: Commercial treaty between the the United Kingdom and the Door, which envisages the suppression of the commercial privileges in all the empire. A similar treaty is signed a few weeks later with the France.
Ottoman Empire: Creation of the Council of the Sublimates Door (Dâr-i churayï Bâb-i 'âlî), charged to examine the private bills. It is intended to increase the effectiveness of the governmental apparatus: the finance departments are gathered, the ministries for the Foreign affairs and of the Trade and the Council of public works is created.
- the Egyptian armies extend their control beyond the Hedjaz. Ibrahim Pasha conducts campaign towards the South, with the accesses of the Yemen.
- Conflict between Christians and Druzes with the Lebanon: a few thousands of Christians Maronites armed by the Egyptians, push back tribes Druzes, constant by the Othomans, the Britanniques and the Russians.
- Signature of a tripartite treaty between Ranjit Singh, which controls the Cachemire, Chah Shuja and the representative of the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies. Its object is to restore Chah Shuja, the heir to the Afghan throne, and to stop the increasing influence of Persians and the Russians in the area.
- Fearing to see to widen the Russian sphere of influence to the borders of the India, the the United Kingdom requires the eviction of a Russian representative with Kabul. In March, forces britannico - Indian invade the Afghanistan, which starts the First war anglo-Afghan (fine in 1842).
- China: Forty thousand cases of Opium (57% of the Chinese imports) are unloaded clandestinely by the Britanniques. An imperial decree condemns to dead any person implied in the production, transport, the sale or the consumption of opium.
February: Constitution in Serbia (Ustav).
- March 13rd: Massacre of Rossio at the time of a popular revolt in Lisbon.
- March 14th: The king Guillaume II of the Netherlands accepts the treaty of the 24 articles of October 15th, 1831 concerning the independence of the Belgium. The treaty ensures the return of some territories the Orangistes.
- July 30th: In Germany, the Convention of Dresden makes it possible to carry out the monetary unit of the country (mark known as " from Cologne "). The States of the Zollverein obtain a common currency, the Prussian Thaler.
- September, Portugal: The the constituent Cortes work out, on a bottom of coup attempts of state, a liberal constitution. It is a compromise text, imposed on the Cortes by Its da Bandeira (1795 - 1876), which maintains the separation of the capacities, removes the “moderating” capacity of the king, establishes the bicameral system and the absolute right to veto of the king.
- December 4th, Italy: The French and Austrian troops respectively leave Ancône and Bologna, in the Papal States, occupied since 1831. End of the Crisis of Italy (1832-1838).
- December 11th: The Conference of London concludes the final agreement on independence and neutrality from Belgium, which will be supplemented by the treaty of April 19th, 1839.
- Creation by liberal boyards and of the middle-class men of Moldavie and Valachie of secret societies like the “ Fratsia ” (Fraternity) of Bucharest.
- the Russians take the fortress of Ahulgo, with the Daghestan.
See also: 1838 in France
- May 8th: The Charte of the People is published.
- June 28th: Crowning of the queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
Richard Cobden bases the league against the law on the corn.
- Thomas F. Buxton ( African Civilization Society ) and Joseph Sturge ( British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society ) start again the countryside abolitionist in the United Kingdom. Creation of Anti-Slavery Association (1838 - 1839).
the Communes adopt the Tythe Act , which takes into account the claims of the hostile catholics to the perception of the dîme intended for maintains the clergy Anglican which touches all the Irishmen. The Communes issue a tax amnesty, a reduction of the rate of the dîme and its conversion into ground rent, putting an end to the Tythe War , which lasts since 1801.
- Law on the poor in Ireland.
Chronologies sets of themes
Art & culture
- Of measurements is taken with the Portugal to allow all the purchase of the goods of the religious orders removed in 1834, to make primary school education free and to promote the teaching of medicine and sciences.
- Construction of the large palace of the the Kremlin to Moscow (1838 - 1849) by Tuna.
- September 3rd: Miss D' Angeville is the first woman to have climbed the Mont Blanc.
- Kent is crowned champion of Cricket in England.
- Foundation with Edinburgh of the Large Calendonian Curling Club.
- Foundation of the club of veil, the Company of the Regattas of Le Havre.
- First match of Baseball to Beachville (High-Canada).
Science and technology
See also: 1838 in science
Births in 1838
- February 18th: Ernst Mach, Physicist and Austrian Philosopher († 1916).
- March 20th: Ferdinand Zirkel, geologist and German petrologist († 1912).
- April 16th: Ernest Solvay, Chemist and a Belgian industrialist († May 26th 1922)
- April 21st: John Muir, Naturalist and American writer († 1914).
- June 28th: Jan Matejko, painter Polish († November 1st 1893)
- September 2nd: Lydia Liliuokalani, last queen hawaiienne, reversed by American growers in 1893. († November 11th 1917).
- October 6th: Giuseppe Cesare Abba, Italian writer († November 6th 1910).
- October 25th: Georges Bizet, Type-setter French († 1875).
- December 30th: Emile Loubet, future president of the French Republic (° 1929).
Death in 1838
- March 26th:
- Jean-Baptiste Attic, French politician, appointed of the Third state of the Seneschalsy of Riom to the General states. (° April 21st 1753).
- Charles Éléonor Dufriche-Valazé, general French (° January 23rd 1751, 87 years)
- May 17th
- Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, French statesman (° 1754).
- Rene Curdled, exploring French (° November 19th 1799)
- August 21st: Adelbert von Chamisso, poet and German Botanist (° 1781).
- September 1st: William Clark, exploring American (° 1770).
- September 5th: Charles Percier, Architect French (° August 22nd 1764).
- December 20th: Hégésippe Moreau, writer, poet and journalist French (° April 8th 1810).
Beats-smg: 1838 Be-X-old: 1838 Map-bms: 1838 Simple: 1838 Zh-yue: 1838 年
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