This page relates to the year 1834 Gregorian Calendrier.
- : The British abolish the Esclavage in the province of the Cape, one of the causes of the Grand Trek of the farmers Boers (1835 - 1837) who move towards the Natal, the Orange and the Transvaal.
- August 25th: Beginning of the reign of Kwaku DUA Ier, asantehene (king) of the Ashanti (fine in 1867).
- December 21st: Sixth war kaffir between colonists of South Africa and Bantou (fine in 1835).
- Mozambique: Portugal revises its policy of attribution of the fields ( prazos ). It removes of it attribution with the devoted servants of the country, to which grounds was granted in exchange of their marriage with Portuguese (be) born (be) in Portugal. This interbreeding aimed to set up a mode of colonization stimulating for the local economy.
- Arrived British missionaries wesleyens at the South-western African. They are withdrawn quickly vis-a-vis their financial problems.
- Of the tribes of the Ouadaï plunders the adjoining countries, which involves an military intervention of the sultan Mohammed Fadel of the Darfur. This one designates as sultan of Ouadaï a brother of Abd el-Kérim, Mohammed Chérif, which must recognize the suzerainty of the Darfur. In spite of that, Mohammed Chérif undertakes some happy forwardings against her neighbors (end of reign in 1858).
- February 24th: Agreement on the principle of a mode of Co-sovereignty on the Algeria between the French and Abd el-Kader. This treaty, favorable to the emir, is negotiated by the general Desmichels, who obtains from Abd el-Kader the recognition of French sovereignty. Abd el-Kader lends oath to the king Louis-Philippe Ier who invests it bey d' Oranie and obtains the right for the Arabs to buy weapons, powder and ammunition and to have the port of Arzew. It makes it possible Abd el-Kader to eliminate its Moslem adversaries, such Mustapha Ben Ismaïl.
- This treaty caused conflict, the tribes of the Zmalas and Douairs refusing to pay the Zakât (Achoura) with the emir Abd el-Kader. It led to the agreement of the camp of the Fig trees ( El Kerma ) the June 16th 1835, between Aghas Mustapha Ben Ismaiel Zmali, Kadour Ben El Morfy Zmali and Benaouda Mazari Zmali on a side, and the general Trézel of the other. According to the old ones, the Oran boards cursed Zmalas and Douairs ( allah yan' aal zmalas OAU douairs wine my tlakou ).
- July 22nd: Creation by a royal decree of the “general Government of the French possessions in the north of Africa”, after a survey carried out in Algeria by a composite commission of pars, deputies and officers.
- July 27th: The first General governor, Drouet d' Erlon, tries to direct the country via the bey Ahmed of Constantine and Abd el-Kader in the west (fine the July 8th 1835).
- February 21st: The leaders of the two communities of the Canada, Louis-Joseph Papineau and William Lyon Mackenzie, require a parliamentary mode (quatre-vingt-douze resolutions). The British government retorts by the nomination of a Board of inquiry directed by Lord Gosford, which adopts a position of neutrality.
- March 8th: Foundation of the Company Saint-Jean-Baptist of Montreal by Ludger Duvernay.
- April 24th: Autocratic mode of the caudillo Santa Anna with the Mexico (fine in 1855).
- April, the United States: The Republicans take the name of Whig S to mark the analogy of their opposition to the “tyranny” of Andrew Jackson with the fight of the English liberals of the 18th hostile century to the king George III.
- June: The Congrès of the United States adopts a law which makes of all the American territory in the west of the the Mississippi the field of the Indians. The States of the Missouri and the Louisiana, the grounds of the Arkansas are not concerned.
- August 12th: The Brazil, an additional act with the Constitution of 1831 allows the introduction of a true parliamentary mode directed by a regent-citizen elected for four years by the restricted vote, in fact the abbot Diego Antonio Feijó. The Council of State, bastion of the conservatives, is abolished. The federalism triumphs: in the provinces the legislative assemblies replace the purely advisory general advices. This mode lasted until in 1840, year at the time which Pierre II reached his majority and began his personal reign.
- October: Elections with the Low-Canada; the candidates favorable to the 92 resolutions gain almost all the seats with the legislative Parliament.
- Seven hundred Cherokee S are resigned to leave for the West. Eighty of them die on the way. More half of those which arrive at destination will be victims of the Choléra.
- Strike of workers of textile industry with Lowell (Massachusetts) following the dismissal of the one among it.
- the immigrants start to penetrate in the Large Plains on Chariots Conestoga (1834 - 1869).
The Middle East
- October 23rd: Died of Fath 'Ali Shah after 37 years of reign. Mohammad Shah reign on the Persian . Governor of Azerbaïdjan, it walks on Teheran with a Anglo-Russian escort and appoints Prime Minister the governor of Tabriz, Kaïm Hakan. He supports the relations with the Russia at the expense of the Great Britain.
Lebanon: the new Egyptian administration guarantees measurements in favor of the Christians. The constraints (wearing of distinctive costumes and sign) are raised.
- May 7th: The area of Coorg (or Kodabu), in India, is annexed by the British.
- Lord Auckland occupies Kandahar ( April), takes Ghaznî ( July) then Kabul ( August). The king exiled Shah Shuja is replaced on the throne of Kabul, without the least acclamation, with the detriment of Dost Mohammed, however ready to treat with the British against the Russians. A British army remains in Afghanistan.
- December: Died of the king of Kampuchea Ang Chan II. His/her daughter Ang Mey succeeds to him. The emperor of the Vietnam, Minh Mang, imposes his protectorate on the Kampuchea (fine in 1845). He undertakes a systematic policy of vietnamisation by imposing his language and placing at the sides of each Kampuchean governor a Vietnamese civil servant. The army khmère is reduced to the state of militia.
- Manila opens to the foreign tradesmen.
- August 7th: The order of Picpus is established on the archipelago of the Gambier. The missionaries undertake the evangelization of the Polynesians to counter the Protestant influence. During 30 years, the Laval father exerts a true dictatorship on the natives and their goods.
- January 1st: Adhesion of the Bavaria and the Wurtemberg to the Zollverein which gathers 25 States of the Germanic Confédération but excludes the Austria.
- January 15th: Government Francisco Martínez of Rosa in Spain.
- April 3rd: Mihail Sturdza becomes hospodar of Moldavie (fine in 1849).
- April 15th: The concluding of a treaty of Triple Alliance enters England, Spain and Portugal. France was carefully kept away by the English diplomacy.
April 24th: Quadruple Alliance. The Great Britain, the France, the Spain and the Portugal are intended to regulate the dynastic crisis in Spain and in Portugal and guarantee the independence of the Belgium: concluded following the French protests against the treaty of April 15th, this treaty gives to France only one role of simple back-up troop but allows him to save the face.
- May 26th, Portuguese Civil war: Defeat of the partisans of Miguel Ier in Asseiceira.
- May 26th: Convention of Evoramonte. Miguel Ier gives up definitively all its rights on the crown of the Portugal. Pedro dies this same year and the capacity passes to his/her daughter, Maria, declared major, under the pressure of the Quadruple Alliance (fine in 1853). The political company, of agreement on the ousting of Miguel Ier, is divided into two groups: one (chartists), recommends the tender with the charter of 1826 (landowners, middle-class). The other gathers ideologists attached to the expression of national sovereignty, in favor of the return to the constitution of 1822 (craftsmen, small shopkeeper, middle-classes).
- June 12th: Secret protocol of fight against the agitation of the republicans in Germany and Austria.
- June, Conference of Vienna: Metternich, in agreement with the German princes, makes adopt the Resolutions of June 1834 which reinforcement of the censure in each German State.
- July 15th: Final abolition of the Enquiry in Spain by the queen Marie-Christine.
- September 29th: Implementation of the Charter of 1826 in Portugal.
- November 20th: Creation of the Universit3e libre de Bruxelles by Pierre-Theodore Verhaegen
- official Abolition of the Slavery by the Portugal.
- Abolition of the religious orders to the Portugal. The enriched middle-class men, purchaser of the national goods coming from the confiscations operated at the expense of the orders, are anoblis (42 titles of baron are distributed of 1834 to 1879).
See also: 1834 in France
- 9 - April 13rd: Insurrection with Lyon (V. Revolt of the Silk workers)
- April 13rd: Riots with Paris.
- April 14th: Massacre of the street Transnonain .
The United Kingdom
- February: Creation of the Large National Consolidated Trades Union .
- March 18th: Business of the “Martyrs of Tolpuddle”: six farm laborers are off-set for seven years in Australia to have required an oath of fraternity to their adherent comrades with the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union .
- June 16th: Beginning of the first ministry whig of Lord Melbourne, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (end in December).
- : Abolition of the Slavery in the British colonies.
- August 14th: New Law of the poor ( Poor Law amendment Act ), which alters, by hardening it, government aid with poor and creates asylums in the living conditions inhuman (“bastilles”), intended to collect the abandoned children and the poor. These Workhouse S will constitute a tank of labor under conditions lower than those of the independent employees poorest.
- October 16th: The Palate of Westminster, seat of the British Parliament, is destroyed by a fire. It is rebuilt in the style neogothic by the architect Charles Barry in 1837. The Communes turn over to sit in 1847 there, but the building is completed only in 1860.
- November 14th: The king revokes the government whig Lord Melbourne.
- December 10th: Beginning of the ministry tory of Robert Peel, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1835). By naming the conservative Robert Peel, the king tries to choose a Prime Minister who does not have the majority with the Communes. Peel remains only four months with the capacity.
- Robert Peel founds the conservative party.
- December 18th: Proclamation of Tamworth, declaration of general policy published by the chief of the tories Robert Peel. He announces his acceptance of the electoral reform of 1832 and recognizes the need for proceeding to the reforms necessary.
- Arrest of the members of the founded Circle with Moscow by Herzen and Ougarev.
- Limitation of the stay abroad at 5 years for the noble ones and 3 years for the commoners (3 and 2 years in 1851).
- Prohibition of the Telegraph of Moscow of Polevoï.
- July 15th: Foundation of the university of Kiev.
- Re-examined ministry for the State education.
- Library of reading.
Chronologies sets of themes
Art & culture
- Raspail founds the newspaper the Reformer .
- Mérimée is named general inspector of the Historic buildings.
- Daumier evokes the repression of the riots of June 1834 in its table, the Street Transnonain .
- Eugene Delacroix paints the Femmes of Algiers in their apartment .
- Jean-Baptiste Debret publishes his picturesque and historical Voyage to Brazil .
- the Martyrdom of saint Symphorien , of Ingres, is very badly accommodated.
- Katsushika Hokusai painted Hundred sights of the Mount Fuji (fine in 1835).
- Construction of the Alexandrine Column to Saint-Pétersbourg by Ricard de Montferrand.
- July 14th. Behavior with Ramsola (Sweden) of the “Scandinavian Olympic Games” with Fight, races, High jump and Jump with the pole, in particular.
Science and technology
See also: 1834 in science
Economy & Company
- Portugal: Continuation of the fall of the farm prices in 1834 and 1851.
- Modernization of the Danubian principalities by the creation of roads, the organization of a postal system, the opening of school.
- the First exports of Groundnut S of Gambia towards England, the United States and France. They increase regularly to exceed 10 000 tons per annum in 1850. The culture of groundnut for export also develops in the Rivers of the South (areas between the Gambia and the Sierra Leone) then with the Senegal starting from 1850.
- Mohammed Sherif and his Ali son supports the Trans-Saharan exchanges of the Ouadaï with Benghazi, in Cyrénaïque.
Births in 1834
- January 1st: Ludovic Halévy, academician French († 1908)
- January 19th: Alexander von Homeyer, German ornithologist († 1903)
- February 7th: Dmitri Mendeleïev, Russian chemist
- March 17th: Gottlieb Daimler, engineer German, designs the first car
- March 24th: William Morris, painter, writer and British decorator
- April 22nd: Gaston Planted, physicist French
- April 30th: John Lubbock, prehistorian, biologist and politicking British
- July 4th: Christopher To draw up, British architect
- July 10th: James Whistler, American painter
- July 19th: Edgar Degas, painter French
- July 19th: Jean-Marie Déguignet, soldier, Breton writer († 1905)
- August 2nd: Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, sculptor French
- December 16th: Leon Walras, French economist († 1910)
Death in 1834
- May 20th: Marquis of Fayette, soldier.
- May 25th: Charles Joseph Auriol, Swiss painter. (° November 13rd 1778).
- July 25th: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, poet, critic and British philosopher (° 1772).
- August 31st: Karl Ludwig Harding, German Astronomer .
- September 24th: Pierre Ier of Brazil, in exile with the Portugal.
- October 8th: François-Adrien Boïeldieu, French type-setter (° 1775).
- December 23rd: British Malthus economist (°1766), celebrates for his theory of growth of the population faster than the growth of the production, causing an increase in general misery.
- December 27th: Charles Lamb, English essay writer (pen name Elia, ° 1775).
Beats-smg: 1834 Be-X-old: 1834 Map-bms: 1834 Simple: 1834 Zh-yue: 1834 年
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