This page relates to the year 1831 Gregorian Calendrier.
- April: Peace agreements between the Asante, the other territories of the Gold Coast and the British.
- Forwarding of Monteiro and Gamitto in Angola.
- Following dissensions between their leaders, the Nguni are divided into three groups. The partisans of Soshangane emigrate towards the south of the Mozambique and found the State of Gaza, of the name of the father of their chief. Those of Nxaba settle with the current Zimbabwe and contribute to the ruin of the empire of the mwene Mutapa. The men of Zouangendaba, after having traversed part of the Mozambique and Zimbabwe, carry on their road towards North (1835).
the dynasty of the Changamiré of the Boutoua (Zimbabwe) is reversed by the people Ngoni and Ndébélé come from north. The country is devastated.
French Pasteur Eugene Casalis is sent by the Société of the evangelic missions of Paris at the Basuto of the Lesotho where he plays a political role and diplomatic considerable near the king Moshoeshoe (Moschech), while training catechists among the autochtones and by organizing primary school education.
- January 7th: The bey of Tunis takes Oran. In accordance with the convention signed with France in 1830, Husayn bey proposes his services in France. He hopes to obtain Constantine and to place his Mustapha brother at the government of Oran. But the violences exerted by its troops in Algérie make scandal and Paris does not ratify convention. This reversal will harm the free-Tunisian relations, whereas, by offering his services to the occupant, the bey compromised himself with the eyes of the Moslems.
February: In Algeria, Bertrand Clauzel is replaced by the general Pierre Berthezène, who with his successors, the duke of Rovigo (December 6th 1831 - April 29th 1833), Theophilus Voirol (April 29th 1833 - September 27th 1834), are satisfied with the occupation of Algiers and his surroundings, with rare exceptions.
the Ahmed Turk controls the major part of the beylicat of Constantine.
- January 1st: The American William Lloyd Garrison publishes his free trade newspaper, The Liberator . In January, free Blacks are whipped and imprisoned with Washington to have sold it.
February 24th: Departure towards the west of thirteen thousand Choctaw S of the the Mississippi following the treaty Dancig Rabbit Creek , signed the September 27th 1830 with the United States. Several thousands of them are killed by the Famine and the Choléra. The seven thousand Choctaws which did not leave yet decide not to move.
March 18th: Lawsuit of the Cherokee S against the State of Georgia following the discovery of gold layers on their territories. The Supreme court rejects their recourse, qualifying the Indians of “internal and dependant nations”.
- Cherokees are invited to settle in the west of the the Mississippi and their grounds are offered for sales. They adopt a policy of non-violence although their properties were seized, their burned houses, their closed schools and their maltreated wives. In 1832, Andrew Jackson will declare the rule of the laws of the States concerning the cherokee question. Their newspapers are prohibited, their government dissolves, the missionaries put in prison and the grounds scattered in small pieces.
August 21st: Revolt black slaves directed by Nat Turner in the Comté of Southampton (Virginia). Seventy slaves ransack plantations and kill about fifty people. They are finally captured and Turner and eighteen of its men are hung. After the revolt, the repressive system hardens considerably in the South.
- In March, dom Pedro chooses a cabinet in conformity with the wishes of the opinion, but replaces it in April by an unpopular cabinet made only of noble and senators. The opposition claims the return of the cabinet precede.
- April 7th: the emperor Pierre Ier of Brazil, become very unpopular, is constrained to abdicate, in favor of his son Pedro de Alcantara , five years old, which takes the name of Pierre II of Brazil (fine of reign in 1840). This one, born with the Brésil after independence was true Brazilian, but its accession with the throne however marked the one period beginning of political instability.
- Dom Pedro returns to Portugal where they is devoted exclusively to the rights of his/her daughter gave Maria II, which it replaces on the throne in 1834. He dies the same year at the 36 years age.
- With the Brazil, a council of regency of three members east chooses by the Parliament. Two teams following one another two months of interval.
- federalistic Movements in the Pernambouc, with Bahia and in the Mato Grosso (1831 - 1835). Disorders with Rio de Janeiro.
- the Traite Blacks becomes illegal with the Brésil.
- the government Chinese renews the import ban of the Opium.
- September 9th: The the Vatican creates the apostolic Vicariat of Korea, at the moment or the central capacity represses the Catholicisme.
- Renouvellement of alliance enters the British and the Sikhs.
the army of the movement of the Mujahidins is overcome by the Sikhs. Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi dies in the battle.
the British occupy the Mysore, which becomes a princely State under British supervision.
Fight against the Thug S, sect appeared at the 13th century with Delhi and with the Bengal, which practice ritual sacrifices on the travellers by throttling. Their activities are important in the years 1831 - 1839. They are decimated by the British.
The Middle East
- Beginning of the occupation of the Syria and the Lebanon by the Egypt (fine in 1840).
- November: Mohammed Ali and her son Ibrahim Pasha invades the Palestine and the Syria (fine in 1839), Othoman provinces whose sultan had promised to them protectorate in exchange of their collaboration in Greece. Only the British pressures and Frenchwomen dissuade them to attack the Othoman central capacity. The sultan withdraws in Mohammed Ali his title of pasha.
has Baghdad, the Othoman sultan replaces the last Mamelouk, Dä' ud pasha, by Othoman governors with an aim of restoring the authority of the Porte.
Retour to the Cairo of Rifa' has Al-Tahtawi and of its stock exchange students. Its experiment of the French company, after a five years stay to Paris, to him with inspired a reflection on the evolution of Moslem civilization and its meeting with Western modernity. A publication, in 1834, will launch the debate which will be taken again by the reformers of the Moslem intellectual rebirth, the Nahda.
Persian: The country is disorganized and finances are in crisis. The prince Kadjar `Abbas Mirza is charged to restore the order in the empire in the name of the shah Fath 'Ali. In order to put a term at the revolts antifiscales which the farming community knows, the prince conducts campaign in the south, the Khorasan and on banks of the Amou-Daria.
Oceania & the Pacific
- traditional Cutting of the Pacific in four areas, on a racial basis (the Malaysia, the Mélanésie, the Micronesia and the Polynesia, suggested by Jules Dumont d' Urville with the Company of Geography to Paris.
- February 2nd: The Conclave elects the Capellari cardinal like pope to replace Pie VIII (in December 1830 death). The new pope takes the name of Gregoire XVI.
- In front of the refusal of Michel Ier of Portugal to recognize the Monarchy of July, the the Holy Alliance authorizes the France to intervene militarily. The French fleet bombards Lisbon the July 11th.
- October 9th: Assassination of Kapodistrias to Nauplie. The Greece is delivered to the foreign interests, especially British.
- Adhesion of the Hesse to the Zollverein.
- the Schleswig, which claimed the convocation of the States, obtains satisfaction between 1831 and 1834.
Belgium & Netherlands
- January 20th: The Conference of London allots the totality of the Luxembourg, the part of the Limbourg in the east of the Meuse and Maastricht with the king of the Netherlands and decides that the Belgium will be a perpetually neutral State under the guarantee of the five powers (the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Prussia, Russia).
- February 3rd: The Belgian national congress chooses for king, with a narrow majority, the duke of Nemours, second wire of Louis-Philippe, in front of the duke of Leuchtenberg and L `Charles archduke of Austria. Louis-Philippe made known by advance which it was not question that one of its sons goes up on the throne of Belgium, it to what England would have been in any case opposed.
- February 7th: Belgian Constitution, inspired by the middle-class and catholic liberalism, which ratifies the creation of a parliamentary bicameral system and hereditary monarchy.
- Separation of the Belgium and the Netherlands stopped in London in June.
- February 24th: The National congress elects the baron Érasme Surlet de Chokier regent of Belgium, posts that it will keep until the oath-taking of Léopold Ier, on July 21st, 1831.
- February 26th: liberal ministry directed by the catholic Etienne de Gerlache.
- March 28th: unionistic ministry of Joseph Lebeau
- June 4th: The Belgian National congress chooses as king the prince Léopold of Saxony-Cobourg, widower of the Charlotte princess, girl of the king d' Angleterre George IV, and candidate of the England. This one accepts the crown of Belgium on June 26th subject to acceptance by the Belgian National congress of the 18 articles of the Conference of London of January 1831.
- July 21st: Léopold Ier of Belgium becomes the first king of the Belgian . He lends oath to the Belgian constitution.
- 2 - August 12th: The army Dutchwoman invades Belgium but encounters a French counter-offensive.
- August 2nd: Entry of the army Dutchwoman in Belgium, violation of the armistice. Belgium requires the assistance of France.
- August 6th: A French Army of 50 000 men ordered by the marshal Gerard is ready to go to the help of Belgium.
- August 12th: The French Army gives an opinion in Brussels. In a few weeks, it pushes back the Dutch attack.
- September 15th: Conference of Brussels ratifying by the great powers the separation of Belgium and Holland of 24 articles.
- October 15th: Treated of London known as “of the 24 articles” which allots to Belgium the oriental party of Limbourg and Luxembourg. Guillaume Ier of the Netherlands preserves part of the Luxembourg and the Limbourg and obtains a more favorable division of the debts of the old plain Netherlands (24 articles of October).
- February 2nd: Beginning of the Pontificate of the 254e pope Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari which takes the name of Gregoire XVI (fine on June 1st 1846). Its Secretary of State is the cardinal reactionary Bernetti.
- 4 - February 12th: Popular insurrection with Bologna directed by Ciro Menotti (stopped as of the February 3rd) in spite of measurements of appeasing taken by the duke of Modena. It aims at establishing a representative monarchy whose sovereign was to be chooses with Rome. The governments fall without resistance to Bologna, Modena, Reggio and Parma.
- February 26th: The French government refuses to support the Italian revolutionists. The movement misses popular support and suffers from the municipal competitions, in spite of creation with Bologna of a government of the United Provinces of Italy the March 4th.
- Intervention of the Austrian troops to break the revolutionary movement in Romagna, with Parma and Modena.
- March 26th: The provisional government of Vicini capitulates after the catch of Modena and Parma. The republican leaders Ciro Menotti (May 23rd) and Borelli are carried out. Louis-Philippe sends a task force to Ancône to make failure with the Austrian influence in the pontifical state. Charles-Albert of Sardinia lines up as regards Austrian against the liberals, the Carbonari and France. Metternich remains Master of Italy.
- April 27th: Beginning of the reign of Charles-Albert of Savoy-Carignan, king of Piedmont. Divided between the hatred of the Austria and mistrust for the “subversive” mediums the tradition of the enlightened despotism preserves and tries to reform Piedmont. It introduces new codes, creates a Legislative council, removes the feudal rights in Sardinia and lowers the customs tariffs. It is surrounded by moderate (Barbaroux, Caccia).
- May 21st: Common step of the France, the Austria, the Great Britain, the Prussia and the Russia to invite the pope to make reforms necessary in its States. He results from it from the papal edicts (July 5th, 5 & October 31st, 4 & November 5th 1831. Then the pope launches out in a policy of repression with the support of Austria.
- May 23rd: The republican leader Ciro Menotti is carried out with Modena.
- has Marseilles, the Italian revolutionist Giuseppe Mazzini founds the movement Giovine Italia ( Jeune Italy ), association made up of young patriots who proposes to release and to unify Italy and to found a republican mode there. It stresses the education of the populations.
- Eruption of the volcano Ferdinandea.
- Crushing by the Russians of the Insurrection of November.
- January 18th: Adam Czartoryski becomes president of the provisional government of Warsaw the Poles expels the Russian authorities and proclaims their independence.
- January 25th: The Sejm proclaims the forfeiture of the tsar. During the war which follows, the Poles resist to the Russians during several months.
- February 5th: The Russian marshal Ivan Dibich enters in Poland to the head of 115 000 men.
- February 25th: The Poles stop the Russian advance with the Bataille of Grochow, but the State major is divided on the strategy to adopt (extension of the movement to the close people or consideration in Poland).
- May 26th: Defeat of the Polish nationalists, weakened by the Cholera, with Ostroléka.
- September 8th: The Russian troops enter to Warsaw. Rising is violently repressed after the defeats of the nationalists. The Russia subjects Poland to a policy of repression and of Russianization. Poland ceases existing like nation. The Russians undertake a systematic destruction of Polish nationality. The Polish Constitution, Diet and the army are abolished, the private Poles their individual freedoms. The universities are closed, the students sent in Russia, the persecuted catholics. Ten thousand patriots exile themselves towards the Suisse, the Belgium and the France. Bloody demonstrations, riots, reprisals follow one another.
nationalist Insurrection in Lithuania.
- In spring, failure of the insurrection of the Western provinces of the Russian Empire.
- December: Payment on the participation of the nobility in the local elections: only right of direct suffrage the noble ones have having more than 100 hearts or 3000 arable land déciatine.
- Closing of the universities of Warsaw and Wilno and of the college of Krzemieniec (1831 - 1833).
See also: 1831 in France
- 14 - February 15th: Riots in Paris following a funeral service organized by the legitimists with Saint-Germain-L' Auxerre-native for the birthday of the assassination of the duke of Berry. The church is invaded and put at bag by the republicans. The following day, the riot ransacks the archbishop's palace and of many churches in Paris and in province.
- November 21st - December 9th: Revolt of the Silk workers to Lyon.
Chronologies sets of themes
Art & culture
- Freedom guiding the people and the Assassination of the bishop of Liege fabrics of Delacroix.
- Opening to the public of the collections of the Museum Roumiantsev with Saint-Pétersbourg.
- April 18th: To Madrid (Spain), alternate of Francisco Assemble known as “Paquiro”, Spanish Matador.
- October 17th: With Madrid (Spain), alternate of Jose of los Santos, Spanish Matador.
Science and technology
See also: 1831 in science
- First professional championship of Oar (Skiff) to the the United Kingdom.
- the Surrey is crowned champion of cricket in England.
- October 22nd. Foundation with Buenos Aires of the first Argentinian club of Cricket.
- Publication with the the United Kingdom of Reminiscences off Eton where a former student of famous College specifies that “football cannot be considered a sport of gentleman; after all, the small people of Yorkshire also play there… ”.
Economy & Company
- 150 000 inhabitants with Baghdad which knows a commercial rebirth. It receives products of the India, of Syria, Perse, Turkey. The European influence, in particular British, is growing there.
- Development of the construction of agricultural machinery in Russia (Bunetop).
Births in 1831
- January 8th: John Stith Pemberton American pharmacist († August 16th 1888).
- April 15th: Eugene Dustbin, Parisian prefect († 1907)
- June 28th: József Joachim, Hungarian violonist
- July 7th: Félicien Rops, Belgian painter
- August 20th: Eduard Suess, Austrian geologist
- November 19th: James Garfield, President of the United States
- November 27th: Gustav Radde, explorer and German naturalist († March 2nd 1903)
Death in 1831
- January 6th: Rodolphe Kreutzer French violonist and type-setter (° 1766).
- April 14th: Alexandre Camille Taponier, general French.
- May 20th: The Abbot Gregoire, militant for the abolition of the Slavery.
- June 27th: Sophie Germain, mathematician.
- June 29th: The baron Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom Stein (° 1757), Prussian politician, who worked by his reforms for the modernization of the Prussia.
- July 4th: James Monroe, President of the United States.
- October 10th: Johann Christian Ludwig Hellwig, German entomologist (° 1743).
- November 13rd: Hegel, Philosopher.
- November 16th:
- Rene Desfontaines, French botanist (° 1750).
- Carl Gottlieb von Clausewitz, general Prussian, father of the modern strategy
- December 10th: Thomas Johann Seebeck, German Physicist discoverer of the Thermoelectricity.
Beats-smg: 1831 Be-X-old: 1831 Map-bms: 1831 Simple: 1831 Zh-yue: 1831 年
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