This page relates to the year 1823 Gregorian Calendrier.
- June: Beginning of the war between British and Ashanti in Africa in Coast of Gold (Ghana) (fine in 1831). Countryside of Asante against the Denkyira, the Fanti and the British.
- the king of Sokoto Mohammed Bello subjects Ilorin (northern kingdom of Oyo).
- When the septentrional part of the kingdom of Oyo is occupied by the Peuls, the alafin, military chief and policy, leaves his capital of Old Oyo annexed to the emirate peul of Ilorin and transports the political center of its state in Oyo, a hundred kilometers more in the south. The oni, religious leader, remain with Ifé, with a very reduced influence.
- the disorders with the Yoruba accelerate the decline of Oyo which becomes the source of a trade of slave towards the markets of Lagos and of Badagri.
a British forwarding explores the South of the the Sahara: Denham and Clapperton, carrying diplomatic recommendations, leaves Tripoli (1822), cross the Sahara, then reach the Lac Chad. It remain in the empire of the Bornou and visit the adjoining countries (February 17th - December 14th).
Creation of the first company of Senegalese Riflemen (125 men).
the king of Madagascar Radama Ier takes again the offensive in the east and subjects the Betsimisaraka, then the Antankara. It then attacks the kingdom Sakalave Boina, whose sovereign Andriantsoli made alliance with the Antalaotes. After a short campaign, the army Mérina is victorious.
- May 10th: Louis-Joseph Papineau and John Neilson presents to London a report against the project of Union of the Haut and the Low-Canada. The Great Britain will give reason to the French Canadians.
- March 19th: Augustin Ier of Mexico is reversed by an officer, Santa Anna. Proclamation of the Mexican Republic.
- April 17th: Meeting of the constituent Assembly of the Brazil, convened the June 3rd 1822. Conflicts are born between the emperor and the Constituent one (it is necessary that the emperor sanctions the laws voted by the Parliament?). The assembly is dissolved the October 12th. Deputies are stopped, of which Jose Bonifacio which exiles in France until in 1829.
- July 19th: Bernardo O' Higgins is exiled with the Peru.
- September 8th: Treaty of Moultrie Creek: The Séminoles officially yield to the the United States the majority of their grounds in the north of the Florida.
- September 10th: Simon Bolivar becomes president of the Peru.
- December 2nd: The president James Monroe, states in front of the Congrès of the United States the new policy of the the United States in America, called since 1854 the “Doctrine Monroe”. She regards the Latin America as a sphere of influence of the the United States and preaches the non-intervention of the European powers in the businesses of the continent, their opposition to European colonization and any attempt at destabilization in the Western hemisphere.
- the British Minister for the Foreign affairs Canning discreetly recognizes the independence of the Spanish colonies of America in the name of the government of London.
Asia & Indian world
: Lord Amherst becomes general governor of British India.
Japan: Vagueness of agrarian revolts in the Kansai, close to Osaka. The peasants claim the suppression of the monopolies of the wholesalers.
- the Râjput S are submitted to the British in India.
Java: beginning of the revolt of the prince Diponegoro, prince of Djogjakarta, heir to the kings of Mataram. He becomes the hero of resistance to colonization, having one supports popular considerable, the peasants conspicuous in him an emanation of the “king justice”, this Messiah whose several preachings had announced the arrival. During seven years, the Javaneses oppose a resistance baited to the Dutchmen (Guerre of Java).
Oceania & the Pacific
- Australia: The British Parlement creates a Legislative council formed members named directly by the crown, to replace the military jurisdiction.
The Middle East & world arabo-Moslem
July: Treated Erzurum which put an end to the war between the Perse and the Ottoman Empire. Persia obtains territorial advantages in the west, as well as the freedom of trade and circulation to its merchants in the Ottoman Empire. N the other hand, the shah, threatened by the Russian expansion in north, commits himself not more trying military incursions into the Othoman provinces.
Mohamed-Ali creates an Egyptian national army. Its recruitment is primarily rural and the European framing.
- January 12th: Failure of the Othomans with Missolonghi, in Etolie. The northern coast of the gulf of Patras remains with the hands of the Greek insurrectionists.
- April 7th: Forwarding of Spain. After the Congress of Vérone (October-December 1822), on the authorities of Chateaubriant, the “a hundred and thousand wire of Saint Louis”, come from France, easily manage to restore the Absolutisme in Spain. Two army corps are detached, one towards the Catalogne, the other towards the Asturies, intended to operate in an almost autonomous way. The large one of the troops goes down towards Madrid, then Cadiz, or the king and the the Cortes took refuge. Cadiz is besieged. The marshals Moncey, Oudinot and Victor continue the insurgent army and obtain its capitulation after the catch of the Palais of Trocadéro the September 23rd.
- May 10th: Under the influence of the lawyer Daniel O' Connell, the Irish catholics found an association to defend their political rights, open to all, without social distinction.
- May 27th: Return of the absolutism to the Portugal: taking support on the arrival of the French in Spain, Michel imposes on his father Jean VI of Portugal the abolition of the Constitution of 1822.
- July 14th: Restriction of the right of asylum in Swiss under the pressure of Metternich: the monitoring from abroad is reinforced and the activities of the political refugees are sanctioned.
- August 31st: Battle of the Trocadéro.
- September 28th: Beginning of the Pontificate of Leon XII (fine in 1829).
- October: The king Ferdinand VII of Spain repudiates the ordinance of Aranjuez and restores the absolutism. Repression is wild. The liberals are carried out (Riego, El Empecinado), are imprisoned or constrained with the exile. The acts enacted since 1821 are cancelled. White terror continues until in 1826 ( ominosa década ).
- December 11th: The Othomans raise the second Siège of Missolonghi.
- the pasha of Egypt Méhémet Ali occupies the Crête.
- Repression against the secret societies of the students of Wilno. Adam Mickiewicz is exiled in 1824 in Russia.
- Foundation in Volhynie of the Company of Slavic Plain (federalist), which joined the Company of the South in 1825. Continuation of the activities of the Polish patriotic Company.
- Kantrin is named Minister for Finance in Russia (fine in 1844)
See also: 1823 in France
Arts & cultures
- October 20th: With Madrid (Spain), alternate of Castling Miranda Cop known as “Rigores”, Spanish Matador.
- the Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai begins its series of the “Thirty-six sights of the Fuji mount”.
- Gantry of the British Museum realized by sir Robert Smirke (1823 - 1847).
Sciences & technology
See also: 1823 in science
- the Journal of the Stud farms employs for the first time in France the English word “Sport”. This old English verb (sporting) comes from old French (desport).
Economy & company
- Lisbon and Oporto is connected to the outside world by navigation with vapor.
- First Steam engine used in Bohemia.
- In the Grand Duchy of Posen, the peasants receive the freehold of the grounds which they cultivate, but they should compensate the former silver lord either or by yielding part of surfaces to him. A seventh of the grounds is allocated to the great landowners. In the Polish areas under Prussian domination, the ground is divided between the great fields and of the important farms. The demographic surplus created an important agricultural proletariat which emigrates towards Berlin and the German ports, then towards the the United States. Industries are ruined by the competition of the other areas of the Prussia.
Births in 1823
- January 8th: Alfred Russel Wallace, British Naturalist († 1913).
- January 27th: Edouard Lalo, French type-setter († 1892).
- February 3rd: Spencer Fullerton Baird, ornithologist and American ichtyologist († 1887).
- February 28th: Ernest Renan writer French
- March 14th: Theodore de Banville, French man of letters († 1891).
- March 31st: Alexandre Ostrovski, Russian Playwright († 1886).
- May 12th: John Russell Hind, British Astronomer .
- September 3rd: Nevil Story Maskelyne, Politicking photographer and British († 1911).
- December 7th: Léopold Kronecker, German Mathematician († 1891).
- Xavier de Montépin, French writer.
Death in 1823
- January 26th: Edward Jenner, British doctor , which invented vaccination against variola (° 1749)
- January 27th: Charles Hutton, British Mathematician .
- February 7th: Ann Radcliffe, British, creative novelist of black novels (1764 -1823).
- February 16th: Pierre-Paul Prud' hon, French painter.
- March 14th: Charles François Dumouriez, General French (° 1739)
- April 7th: Jacques Charles, French, “inventive” chemist of the Balloon to gas
- June 1st: Louis Nicolas Davout, Marshal of Empire, duke of Auerstaedt, prince d' Eckmuhl (° 1770)
- July 22nd: William Bartram, American naturalist (° 1739)
- August 20th: Black and white VII, pope
- September 11th: David Ricardo, stockbroker and British theorist economist (° 1772)
- William Artaud, British painter (° 1763)
Beats-smg: 1823 Be-X-old: 1823 Map-bms: 1823 Simple: 1823 Zh-yue: 1823 年
|Random links:||Fuck for Forest | The blue Bird | Gland of moult | Firefall | NBIC|