This page relates to the year 1822 Gregorian Calendrier.
April 9th: Foundation of Monrovia (colony of the Liberia) by the American Colonization Society for former released black slaves. Quickly, the American navy must militarily support the young colony against the attack of the indigenous tribes.
- August 16th, Sudan: Egyptian Victoire on the governor of Kordofan. The revolt in Greece does not make it possible to continue the conquest towards the Darfur. Four governors are installed with Dongola, with Berber, Sennar and the Kordofan.
- September 8th: The sultan of Mascate Seyyd Saïd sign the Treated Moresby with Sir Robert Farquhar, British governor of the island Maurice, which recognizes the authority of Oman on the African coast of the Cape Guardafui with the Cape Delgado. In return, the sultan prohibited his subjects from exporting slaves towards the Christian nations and India.
- Zanzibar : The prohibition of the draft, though ineffective, causes a noticeable decrease of the price of the slaves to export (40 dollars per capita towards 1780, 25 worms 1815, 20 in 1825).
- September 23rd, Angola and Mozambique: The liberal Constitution promulgated with the Portugal is declared applicable to the possessions of overseas.
- October: Revolt with the Sudan against the system of taxes imposed by the Egypt (fine in 1824). Ismaïl Kamil is burned alive. The situation will be restored by the defterdar Mohammed Kousrao.
- November 30th: rear-Rahman Abd succeeds his/her uncle Mulay Slimane like sultan of the Morocco (fine in 1859). He is proclaimed heir with Fès and receives the tender of the country, in particular chiefs Berbères. He takes the direction of a country very weakened and gained by the Anarchie. Its political skill enables him to restore a relative calm during a few years.
- Échec of the conciliation enters the Angola and the Brésil. Its acquired independence, the Brazil, whose prosperity is founded in party on the richnesses of the African colonies, Angola and Mozambique, proposes to constitute a federation. The project does not succeed, although the Portuguese of Brazil took in Angola the changing of those of Lisbon. Monopolizing the trade of the slaves, they build considerable fortunes of which a part was used with construction of the city as Luanda.
From 1822, Tchaka deploys its armies Zoulous in the east of Drakensberg. Vis-a-vis him, many communities choose to flee, attacking with the passage their neighbors, which adds to confusions. The ethnic chart of the area is upset (Mfecane, “tumultuous movement of populations). Certain chiefs prefer to make their tender with the Zulu.
- the king of Madagascar Radama Ier is turned to the west against the kingdom of the Menabe and subjects some the southernmost part.
- Arrived missionaries craftsmen at Madagascar (1822 and 1828).
- the English is instituted only official language of the Colonie of the Cape.
May 24th: In connection with the insurrection of Guayaquil, the general Sugar, lieutenant of Simon Bolivar, Spanish troops royalist with Quito with the is victorious battles of the mount Pichincha. The Ecuador integrates the Grande Colombia with the Colombia and the Venezuela.
- July 2nd: Conspiracy of Denmark Vesey, a free black, which envisaged to set fire to Charleston (South Carolina) then the six plus big cities of the State in order to cause a general rising of the slaves of the area. The conspiracy is betrayed and 35 Blacks, of which Vesey itself, are hung.
- December 12th: Solicited by James Monroe, the Congrès of the United States recognizes independences of the Argentine, the Grande Colombia, the Chile, the Peru and the Mexico and accredits diplomatic missions. See also Doctrines of Monroe.
- Mobilization against the project of union of the High-Canada and the Low-Canada.
- George Canning, Foreign Minister British (1822-1827) is opposed to a project of intervention against the independence Spanish colonies of America proposed by the tsar.
- January 9th: Day of the “ fico ”. Dom Pedro, oldest son of the king and prince regent of the Brazil, refuses to go to Portugal on the convocation of the Cortes and, supported by the population, decides to remain with Rio de Janeiro by saying “ fico ”, “I remain”. This episode precedes the proclamation of independence, which has occurred the September 7th of the same year.
- Jose Bonifácio de Andrada E Silva is named Minister of Interior Department and Foreign affairs.
- Jose Bonifacio convenes with Rio de Janeiro a council of the deputies of the provinces ( procuradores provinciais ) to help the government. The deputies of North, blocked by the war with the Portuguese garrisons, cannot come. Jose Bonifacio makes name the British admiral Lord Cochrane with the head of the Brazilian fleet. Helped of the troops and the militia, it encircles the Portuguese with Bahia. They must give up the city. Then Cochrane subjects the Maranhão and the Pará without difficulties.
- May 13rd: Dom Pedro is proclaimed defender and perpetual guard of Brazil by the municipality of Rio de Janeiro.
- June 3rd: Convocation of the constituent Assembly of Brazil.
- September 7th: Official date reserve for the proclamation of the independence of the Brazil. According to the tradition, on the river banks Ipiranga, Dom Pedro, from return of a voyage to São Paulo, receives the dispatches of Lisbon: the Cortes reduced its capacities and criticized its policy hard. Its reaction is brutal. It is the “ grito C Ipiranga ” (the cry of Ipiranga): “the ndépendance or death! ” (“ Independência or Dead! ”).
- October 12th, Dom Pedro proclaims constitutional emperor and defender of the Brésil under the name of Pierre Ier of Brazil ( Pedro Ier ).
- February 1st: Crowning of Pedro Ier, emperor of Brazil.
the Britanniques control Hyderabad. The country falls into misery. The laid off armies survive thanks to plundering.
- the armies of the shah of Perse advance in the area of the Kurdistan and control the Eastern Anatolia. An epidemic of Choléra puts a term at their expansion.
- Abolition of the Kazakh khanats (1822 - 1844).
- Beginning of the reign of Muhammad Ali, khan of Kokand (fine in 1842).
- Arrivée in India of missionaries Baptists and Anglicans, who will endeavor to convince the inhabitants of India that the the United Kingdom is responsible for morality and Indian spirituality.
- January 17th: Robert Peel is named Minister of Interior Department to the the United Kingdom.
- January 22nd: The chief of the insurrection of Janina, Ali Pasha, is assassinated after an offer of rendering refused with the Othoman .
- May, War of Greek independence:
- Massacre of Tap-holes. The Turks take the island, massacre its inhabitants and reduce women and children in slavery, causing indignation in Europe.
- the Turks seize Janina, putting fine at the secession Albanian country.
- September 16th: George Canning, British Foreign Minister (1822-1827).
- September 23rd: Liberal constitution with the Portugal: Freedom of the press, single room, abolition of the Enquiry, suspensive veto for the king. It institutes the principle of the indivisibility of the Portuguese territory and the citizenship of all its inhabitants.
- October 24th: Beginning of the Congress of Vérone (fine the December 14th). The the Holy Alliance decides to intervene in Spain to restore the absolutism. The France is charged to restore the monarchical order what causes the protest of the the United Kingdom. Chateaubriand sees in an intervention in Spain the occasion to put an end to the conspiracies.
- November 30th: Catch of Nauplie on the Turks by insurgent Greeks.
- Spain: The moderate ones yield the place to the exaltés liberals (progressists). The opposition of the absolutists increases. They found a regency with the Seu d' Urgell and practice the guerilla.
- New push of the Luddisme to the the United Kingdom.
- Last surplus year of the trade balance to the the United Kingdom.
See also: 1822 in France
- March 25th: Limitation of the Freedom of the press (Peyronnet).
- September 7th: The extremists benefit from the abandonment of Richelieu by the count d' Artois to push with the ministry one of their chief most skilful, the count of Villèle.
- September 21st: With Paris, execution of the Four sergeants of La Rochelle, suspected of being related to the Charbonnerie.
- September 27th: Jean-François Champollion deciphers the Hiéroglyphes.
- October 6th: Bubble of the pope Black and white VII which restores 30 dioceses in France, removed with the Révolution.
- January: Secret abandonment by Constantin, brother of Alexandre Ier of Russia, its rights to the throne.
- January 26th of the Calendar Julien: Reform Siberian administration, prepared by Speranski.
- of the Calendar Julien: Prohibition of all the secret societies and the maconnic cabins.
- October 25th: In Poland, arrest of the chiefs of the patriotic Company, which continues its activities however. Łukasinski is locked up in the fortress of Schlüsselburg, where he dies in 1868.
- Taken again expulsion of the Jewish of the villages.
- Arrest with Wilno of a group of professors and students, of which the historian Joachim Lelewel, while others are off-set in Russia (of which the poet Adam Mickiewicz).
- New customs tariff: return to a prohibitory system until in 1857 (easings in 1841 and 1850).
- Protection of textile industries, which make great great strides (manufactures of Ivanovo, manufactures Morozov with Orekhovo-Zuevo, manufacture of Indian Zindel, founded in 1823 with Moscow).
Arts & cultures
- the combat with the barrier of Clichy , fabric of Horace Vernet, glorifiant the National guard of 1814.
- Creation in Sweden of a Gymnastic diploma for the occupation of teacher of .
Sciences and technology
See also: 1822 in science
Births in 1822
- January 6th: Heinrich Schliemann, German archeologist († December 26th 1890)
- January 30th: Franz Ritter von Hauer, Austrian geologist
- February 8th: Maxime Of the Camp, French writer. († February 9th 1894).
- April 16th: Karl Theodor Robert Luther, German Astronomer .
- April 27th: Ulysses S. Grant, future President of the United States
- May 4th: Charles-Eugene Butcher of Boucherville, future Prime Minister for Quebec
- May 6th: Rosa Happiness, animalist painter French
- May 20th: Frederic Passy, Nobel Prize of peace in 1901
- July 22nd: Gregor Mendel, geneticist († January 6th 1884)
- September 3rd: Gabriel Milin, Breton-speaking militant
- October 2nd: Jan Kappeyne van of Coppello, politician Dutch
- October 4th: Rutherford B. Beam, future President of the United States
- December 10th: César Auguste Franck, type-setter
- December 27th: Louis Pasteur, biologist
Death in 1822
- January 12th: Johann Gottlob Schneider, philologist and German Naturalist (° 1750).
- February 4th: Jean-Baptiste Cyrus de Timbrune de Thiembronne, general French.
- May 17th: Armand Emmanuel of Plessis de Richelieu, French politician.
- June 3rd: Rene Just Haüy, French mineralogist (° 1743).
- July 8th: Percy Bysshe Shelley, British romantic poet drowned in Italy (1792 -1822).
- August 19th: Jean-Baptiste Delambre, French astronomer (1749 -1822).
- August 25th: William Herschel, British astronomer.
- November 6th: Claude Louis Berthollet, chemist French (° 1748).
- November 26th: Karl August von Hardenberg (1750-1822), Prussian politician.
- October 13rd: Antonio Canova, Italian neo-classic sculptor (1757 -1822).
Beats-smg: 1822 Be-X-old: 1822 Map-bms: 1822 Simple: 1822 Zh-yue: 1822 年
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