This page relates to the year 1821 Gregorian Calendrier.
- June 12th, Sudan: Ismaïl Kamil, wire of the Khedive of Egypt, subjects Dongola, the Jaali and the Shakya, then enters to Sennar and appendix the kingdom Foundj. Its lieutenant, the defterdar Mohammed Kousrao conquers the Kordofan on the Darfur whose capital falls the August 20th.
- the Egypt imposes on the Sudan a severe administrative mode dominated by the “Turks”, Al-Turkiyya (the Turkish scene), actually of people of Turkish language (Albanian, Circassiens, former Mamelukes rejoined with the khedive). Payable very heavy taxes in kind (cattle and slaves) are raised. Slaves are recruited massively for the army of the khedive and are involved with Assouan.
- One of the reasons for the Egyptian expansion along the valley of the Nile is the draft of the slaves, to supply the army as soldiers in particular. Méhémet Ali account to obtain annually between 20 and 40 000 men per annum, but the draft will get any to him only between 2 and 3 000.
- Foundation of Hamdallahi, capital of the Macina, by Sékou Tinder.
- the sultan of the Morocco Mulay Slimane sends a new military forwarding against the Zawiya (religious center) of Cherrada, which animates the revolt of the Arabs in the area of Haouz. They are a brotherhood mystics and preachers of inspiration soufie.
- Signature of peace between Algiers and Tunis in front of the growing influence of the European powers, under the auspices of the Othoman sultan whose suzerainty is reaffirmed. The reconciliation remains formal.
- Mars: The Compagnie of Hudson Bay absorbs the Compagnie of the North-West. It is alone to exploit the Ground of Rupert.
- July 17th: Andrew Jackson becomes governor of the Territory of Florida.
- August 10th: The Missouri becomes the State twenty-fourth of the American Union.
- September 4th: Assertion of the exclusive rights of the Russia in Alaska, in the north of the parallel 51e.
- September: Emma Willard founds the Séminaire of the women of Troy, the first recognized institution of teaching for young girls to the the United States.
- the Indian cheroquee Sequoyah develops the written language cheroquee.
- Immigration of the Mexicans towards the Texas.
- February, Brazil: With the advertisement of the liberal Revolution to the Portugal, the population of the Pará deposits the governor. A provisional junta is trained the February 10th. With Recife, it is the governor who adheres to the Revolution and makes elect deputies with constituent of Lisbon. With Rio de Janeiro, the government tries to save time and sends the prince dom Pedro on mission to Lisbon. But the garrison is raised, directed by a lawyer, Macamboa. She proclaims the constitution “such as the Cortes has just voted it”. The king Jean VI of Portugal accepts the constitution. Freedom of the press is proclaimed. The king leaves for Lisbon the April 24th, where it makes elect Brazilian deputies in the Cortes, according to the indirect vote for all to several degrees. However, the Cortes of Lisbon take measures for the recolonisation of Brazil. Each Brazilian province depends directly on Lisbon. Against project presented to create a Brazilian Parliament such a confusion causes that the Brazilian deputies decide to emigrate in England. The Cortes order with dom Pedro to return to Europe and send a fleet to seek it. The Brazilian ones are excluded from the stations - keys in the administration of Brazil. The Brazilian reaction is energetic: conspiracies among freemasons. Publication of a newspaper, very violent, against the Cortes ( the Reverberator ). Dom Pedro, supported by the population, decides to remain in Rio (January 8th 1822).
- February 24th: Proclamation of the Plane of Iguala to the Mexico. Agustín de Iturbide, placed at the head of the army by the viceroy to repress the insurrection, gets along with the last rebellious chiefs, in particular Vicente Guerrero. The Iguala plan, or plan of the Three Guarantees, envisages the independence of the Mexico, Catholicism like religion of State and the equality without reference to races.
- June 24th: Simon Bolivar demolishes definitively the royalists of the Venezuela, without supports Spain (the task force gathered with Cadiz revolted) with the Bataille of Carabobo.
- July: San Martín, unloaded in Peru the September 8th 1820 takes the platform of Lima.
- July 28th: Proclamation of the independence of the Peru by Jose de San Martín, declared “protective of the Peru”.
- August 24th: Treaty of Córdoba signed between the royalist former general Agustín de Iturbide and O' Donojù, the last viceroy. The independence of the Mexico is installation by the conservatives.
- September 15th: Independence of the Costa Rica and the Guatemala.
- September 27th: Agustín de Iturbide enters Mexico City then is proclaimed emperor of Mexico under the name of Augustin Ier (fine in 1823).
- September 28th: Juan O' Donojú Viceroy of News-Spain sign the Act of Independence of the Mexico.
- November 28th: Panama integrates the Grande Colombia.
- February 3rd: Beginning of the reign of CAT-kouang, emperor Qing of China (fine in 1850).
- February: The Burmese dominate the Assam.
- Revolt of the padri to Sumatra. Small group of Moslems influenced by the Wahhabites at the time of a voyage to Mecque, the padri upset Sumatra during nearly ten years.
- Realization of the first systematic chart of the coasts of the Japanese archipelago according to Dutch methods, known by the counter of Nagasaki.
Oceania & the Pacific
- Australia: First missionaries in News-Wales-of-South and Western Australia.
- Arrived of the first Protestant missions at Hawaii. They diffuse the values American morals successfully.
The Middle East & Arab World
- January 15th: The Imam of the Yemen is committed respecting the interests of the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies. The Great Britain installs a representative of the Company and secures a presence in the Arabique peninsula and a stopover on the Route of the Indies.
January 21st: Meeting of the the constituent Cortes to the Portugal. The strong man of the assembly, Manuel Fernando Divided into volumes, creator of Sinédrio , directs work of the charged commission to work out the bases of the constitution, to which Jean VI of Portugal, of return of the Brésil, will swear fidelity in July.
- January 26th - May 12th: Congress of Laybach. The decision is made of launching an Austrian military operation against the liberal revolution of Naples.
- March 7th: the troops of the general Guglielmo Pepe are overcome with Rieti and the restored legitimate sovereign with Naples.
- March 12th: Rising of the army to the Piedmont. The insurrection gains Turin and constrained Victor-Emmanuel Ier to be abdicated. Colonel de Santarosa, friend to inherit it presumptive Charles-Albert Savoy-Carignan, grants its supports with the insurrectionists. A Constitution is proclaimed.
- March 31st: Abolition of the Enquiry in Portugal.
- April 8th: Intervention of the Austrian troops against the Piedmontese liberal insurrection, which is overcome with Novare. The Old mode is restored by Charles-Felix, duke of Modena. Repression follows. Silvio Pellico, Federico Confalonieri and of the thousands of liberals and Carbonari is stopped or flees the country.
- April 24th: The court turns over to Lisbon and the king Jean VI of Portugal leaves with his son the responsibility of control the colony of the Brésil.
- May 1st: Foundation in Poland of the patriotic Company (Walerian Łukasiński).
- May 25th: Metternich becomes chancellor of the empire Habsbourg (fine in 1848).
- September 19th: Papal bubble prohibiting the formation of secret companies.
- Gian Pietro Vieusseux, contractor Protestant of Swiss origin organizes the liberal opposition Toscane and founds with Florence with his/her friends (Gino Capponi, Raffaello Lambruschini, Cosimo Ridolfi) the Antologia which seeks to diffuse the ideas progressists among the public opinion. Their first concern is the agriculture, which it is necessary to modernize by economic reforms.
- Russia: Car-dissolution of the Union of the public property, relayed by two more radical companies: the Company of the South in Ukraine (Pavel Pestel and its program, the Rousskaïa Pravda ) and the Company of North with Saint-Pétersbourg (Mouravev and its Constitution).
- January: Alexandre Ypsilanti, leader of the Philiki Etaira , proclaims rising against the Turks starting from the Danubian principalities (Valachie and Moldavie). Prince de Moldavie, Michel Sutsu and the sluger Tudor Vladimirescu join: in January, the hospodar of sick Valachie leaves Bucharest and a “Committee of government” is consisted the boyards favorable to the insurrection.
- February 4th: Tudor Vladimirescu gains the Olténie from where it launches a call to the revolt against the “boyards tyrants”, the proclamation of Padeş . It is joined by many Rumanian peasants, the pandours .
- February 28th/March 6th: Alexandre Ypsilanti coming from Bessarabia enters to Iasi and calls with the revolt the Greeks of Morée and Épire, the Serbes, the Bulgares, and announces the imminent intervention of the armies of the tsar. Vladimirescu goes on Bucharest with 8000 men and 3 guns while the army hetairist, made up of Greeks, Bulgarian, Serb and Montenegrins enters in Valachie starting from Galatz. The tsar condemns like “revolutionist” the action of Ypsilanti. The departure of the Russian general consul Pini adds to confusion.
- March 21st: Tudor Vladimirescu enters Bucharest abandoned by its inhabitants. It tries to negotiate with the boyards while reassuring Constantinople.
- March 25th: Insurrection of the Greece started by the patriarch of Patras, Germanos, simultaneously with the Othoman intervention against Ali Pasha de Janina in 1820. Beginning of the War of Greek independence against the Ottoman Empire (fine in 1829). The patriots answer the call and obtain many successes. The Klephte S form the active core of the insurrectionary movement, cemented by the orthodoxe religion but also by the ideas of the French revolution diffused starting from the Illyrie by the armies of Napoleon. They pirate and cut the roads, while the sultan makes hang the patriarch out of sacerdotal clothes the Easter Day.
- April 20th: Vladimirescu meets Ypsilanti and the access to the city prohibits to him, reproaching him for having promised the Russian and put intervention the country the thank you of the Othoman . Their troops separate; Ypsilanti is withdrawn towards Tirgoviste while Vladimirescu is established with Cotroceni close to the capital.
- May 13rd, the troops of the Sultan enter in Valachie then in Moldavie.
- May 27th: Vladimirescu and “the Parliament of the People” evacuate Bucharest and leave towards the Olténie. Ypsilanti makes stop Vladimirescu for treason, then to judge with Tirgoviste by a court of Hétairie. Condemned to death, it is carried out the June 8th. Its army disperses in July after some engagements against the Othomans, while the hetairists are beaten and that Ypsilanti passes to Austria where Metternich makes it imprison.
- October 5th: After a length seat, the Greeks take Tripolitsa, in the Peloponnese, and massacre the Turkish population, making at least 8.000 dead.
- December 20th/January 1st 1822: Meeting of the National Assembly of Épidaure.
- the inhabitants of Samothrace are massacred by the Turks.
See also: 1821 in France
- methodical Talk of the Christian faith , of Friedrich Schleiermacher, which renews Protestant theology.
- Arrived of the baroness Barbara de Krüdener at Saint-Pétersbourg where it joint with the circles of the Russian mystics.
Arts & cultures
- the Indian Cherokee Sequoyah invents an alphabet intended for its people.
- the authorization to teach the Czech in the colleges of Bohemia is abolished following the Conférence of Carlsbad.
- the kingdom of Poland account 35 schools secondary or technical and 1200 elementary schools, of which two thirds are in the villages, and join together 50 000 schoolboys.
- Derby of Epsom , fabric of Géricault.
- the British landscape painter John Constable painted the Cart of hay .
- Portrait of Venus , fabric of the Portuguese painter Almeida Garrett.
Sciences and technology
See also: 1821 in science
Economy & Company
- April 18th: James Millet, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus and Robert Torrens found the political club of economy with London.
- March 20th: Creation of the first Portuguese bank, the Banco of Lisboa .
- Introduction of the weaving loom of Jacquard to Warsaw.
Births in 1821
- March 19th: Sir Richard Francis Burton, exploring British († October 19th 1890)
- March 25th: Robert Bentley, British botanist († 1893)
- April 9th: Charles Baudelaire, poet and writer French
- April 16th: Ford Madox Brown, British painter
- May 4th: Pafnouti Tchebychev, Russian mathematician († November 26th 1894)
- June 16th: Mary Baker Eddy, American founder of the Christian Science († November 3rd 1910)
- July 18th: Pauline Garcia-Viardot, singer of opera, type-setter
- August 29th: Gabriel de Mortillet, French prehistorian († September 25th 1898)
- November 11th of the Gregorian Calendar or October 30th of the Calendar Julien: Fedor Dostoïevski, Russian writer († 1881)
- December 12th: Gustave Flaubert, French writer
Death in 1821
- February 23rd: John Keats, romantic poet (London, 1795 - Rome, 1821).
- February 26th: Joseph de Maistre, Sardinian philosopher counter-revolutionary (1753 -1821).
- May 5th: Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French.
- September 14th: Stanisław Kostka Potocki, noble, politicking and Polish writer (° November 1755)
- September 18th: Jean-Nicolas Corvisart, French doctor (1755 -1821).
- October 5th: Claudius James Rich, Traveller, Archeologist and British Anthropologist of the beginning of the 19th century. (° March 28th 1787).
Beats-smg: 1821 Be-X-old: 1821 Map-bms: 1821 Simple: 1821 Zh-yue: 1821 年
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