This page relates to the year 1820 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 6th: The first slaves black American released settle in Africa with the Liberia.
- October 11th: The king of Madagascar Radama Ier renews the treaty with the British, and receives the assistance of three general promoted foreign sergeants.
- October: On order of the Door, Méhémet Ali organizes a mission with the Sudan directed by his/her Ismaïl son who subjects the area of Kordofan. The Egypt makes the conquest of the Sudan (fine in 1821).
- November 4th and December 2nd: Victoire of the Egyptians on Shayqiya with Korti and the Dager mount, the Sudan.
- December 8th: The London Missionary Society opens its first schools with Madagascar.
- the Bambara (kingdom of Ségou), pagan, run up against the Moslem Peuls Macina.
- Civil war with the Yoruba : the expansion peule causes massive migrations and transforms the economic conditions, which destabilizes the kingdoms Yoruba. Each people resort to the war to obtain a dominant position in the area.
- the town of Bénin is in ruin and full revolution.
- an Arab caravan crosses the Lac Tanganyika.
- the island Bourbon is affected by a epidemic of Choléra.
- Establishment of the Cane to sugar in the island of the Meeting.
- In two years, Tchaka overcame more than three hundred chiefs whose territories have summers integrated into the Zulu Royaume.
- Fleeing the Zulu , the Ndwandwe, directed by Sobhuza, founds the kingdom of Swazi.
- 5000 British colonists are installed in the area of Port-Elisabeth.
The United States
- March 3rd: Compromised of Missouri, adopted by the Congress of the United States, which maintains the relationship between Slave states and nonslave. The Missouri, slave, and the Maine, not-slave, make their entry in the Union at the same time.
- March 15th: The Maine becomes the twenty-third state of the American Union.
- Spring: God the Father and Jesus-Christ appear to the young person Joseph Smith, 14 years, in the State of New York. It is about the future president the Église of Jesus-Christ of the Saints of the Last Days, whose members are usually called Mormon S.
- December 4th: James Monroe is re-elected president.
the border ( frontier ) reached the the Mississippi.
- Agreement allotting of the grounds to the Cherokee S to the West and prohibiting any colonization.
- Construction of a railway of 20 km between Baltimore and the mill of Ellicott.
- June 19th: Lord Dalhousie becomes governor of the Low-Canada (fine in 1828)
- Projet of union between the Top and the Low-Canada. According to the project, the English would be the only official language; any member of the Parliament should have land and buildings of at least 500 pounds sterling. Louis-Joseph Papineau and its second, John Neilson, leaves for London with a petition 60 000 signatures.
Constitutional Rehandling with the High-Canada.
- January 22nd: Battle of Tacuarembó during the war of independence of Uruguay.
- Mars: The Spain adopts a liberal constitution with the Mexico, causing the opposition of creole Mexican conservatives.
- June 9th: Abolition of the Enquiry in News-Spain.
- October 8th: Died of the king Henri Christophe. Beginning of the government of Jean Pierre Boyer on the totality of the island of Haiti (fine in 1843).
- November 9th: the general Agustín de Iturbide receives the command of the royalist troops of News-Spain.
- February 14th: Beginning of the reign of Minh Mang, emperor of the Vietnam. It reinforces the monarchical power and causes many resistances, especially in the south.
Weakening of the capacity in China: Agitation of the Ouïgours, Moslems, in the Xinjiang. Endemic popular revolts. Corruption and wasting settle in the State. One sells the ranks “of students of the imperial College” and certain civils servant do not hesitate to make burst the dams to adapt the appropriations of rebuilding.
Oceania & the Pacific
the first American missionaries settle with Hawaii.
The Middle East & Arab World
- : Capitulation of Alep, taken again by the Othoman .
- October: War enters the Ottoman Empire and the Perse. The shah walks to the doors of Baghdad (fine in 1823).
the armies of Mohamed-Ali return to Egypt after having cut down the first state wahhababite. The oasis of Diri' has, capital of the emir of the Nejd, is devastated, the emir `Abd Allah, stopped, will be carried out with Istanbul.
- British Protectorate in fact on the Bahrain and Trucial Oman.
- the Egypt conquers the oasis of Siouah.
- 6 000 Italians live in Egypt.
- January 1st: The pronunciamiento (insurrection of a provincial army) of the colonial task force directed by the general Rafael del Riego installs the liberals with the capacity in Spain (fine in 1823).
- January 29th: Beginning of the reign of George IV of the United Kingdom (fine in 1830).
- Georges IV is a hated sovereign, whose marital contentions exacerbate passions. His wife, Caroline, wearied of her misconduct, were exiled in Italy (or it becomes the mistress of Murat, king de Naples). Of return to London in 1820, it binds with the radicals while the king vainly tries to obtain Parliament the cancellation of his marriage. The death of the Caroline queen in 1821 puts an end to the scandal but the prestige of monarchy is some decreased considerably.
- May 1st, the United Kingdom: Hanging of the conspirators of Cato Street.
- March 9th: Abolition of the Enquiry in Spain by the liberals.
- June 8th: coming into effect of the German confederal Act.
- July 9th: Military insurrection of the Carbonari (liberal secret societies partisane of the unification of Italy) in the Kingdom of Naples (Nola, Avellino and Naples). The revolt of Nola obliges Ferdinand Ier to grant a liberal constitution to the Royaume of Naples and to take for Prime Minister the chief of the insurrection, the general Guglielmo Pepe (1783 - 1855).
- military Rising allowing the creation of the “provisional Junta of the supreme government of the kingdom” Oporto, followed proclamation of a junta similar to Lisbon. Together, the two juntas decide creation of two provisional organizations: one prepares the convocation of the Cortes, the other takes over temporarily the duties of the capacity. Brazil, Jean VI of Portugal recognizes the fact achieves.
- the elections in the Cortes reveal the first faults in the block of entreated, between the liberal middle-class and the soldiers, in favor of the restoration of the old mode. Those organize a pronunciamiento the November 11th, the martinhada , by which they temporarily impose on the junta their men and their principles. However, the elections in the constituent Cortes will carry to the capacity of the deputies certainly royalist but decided to proclaim the human rights and of the citizen and the sovereignty of the people.
October 20th - December 20th: Congress of Troppau joining together the Allies of the the Holy Alliance to propose a payment with the Italian question. Metternich obtains that its members intervene militarily in the countries whose modes would be in contradiction with its principles.
- Agitation against the Othomans in Greece (1820 - 1821).
- the pope defends the principle of legitimacy vis-a-vis the movement insurrectionary of Spain and Naples and approves the interventions of the forces of the the Holy Alliance.
- Conference of Vienna bringing together the German princes against the threats of revolutions.
- the reforming minister Hardenberg is isolated capacity in Prussia.
- Publication of the liberal newspaper “ Regeneration of Portugal ”. A place is renamed under the name of “Regeneration”.
See also: 1820 in France
- March 13rd/March 25th: Expulsion of the Jesuits of Russia.
- May 6th: Exile of Pouchkine in the south of Russia.
- June: installation of a special committee to define new rules of Censure (Magnitski and Chichkov).
- October 17th: Mutiny of the regiment of the Semenovski Guard to Saint-Pétersbourg, to protest against brutalities of its chief, the colonel Schwartz.
- massive Rising of the peasants of the Gift.
- Second Sejm (assembled) of the kingdom of Poland. A liberal push is exerted under the influence of Benjamin Constant and the French; the leader W. Niemojowski engages the fight against the censure. The tsar, who attends the one of the meetings, is made indignant at the remarks of the liberal opposition with regard to monarchy: during four years, he does not convene any more Sejm. The political life develops then with secret societies, as in Western Europe.
- Foundation in Poland of the national patriotic Company, starting from the national maconnic cabin founded by Łukasinski in 1819, under the influence of the Italian Carbonari, which wants to preserve the unit of Poland.
- Bezborodko Gymnasium of Nejine. Gogol studies there 1821 with 1828.
- Arrived at Saint-Pétersbourg of mystical Pasteur of Munich Johannes Gossner, elected director of the biblical company (1820 - 1824).
Arts & cultures
- Wish of Louis XIII , fabric of Ingres.
- Construction of the Palate of Buckingham by John Nash.
Sciences and technology
See also: 1820 in science
Economy & Company
- Price collapse and economic activity to the Portugal.
- the average annual production of gold of the Brésil is of 2750 kg.
- annual production of iron in the United Kingdom east of 400 000 tons.
- London account a hundred private banking, the province more than 900.
Births in 1820
- February 15th: Susan B. Anthony, activist American († 1906).
- March 16th: Enrico Tamberlick, singer of opera ( Tenor ) Italy N. († March 14th 1889).
- April 6th: Nadar ( Felix Tournachon ), French photographer († 1910).
- May 10th: Hermann Wilhelm Ebel, German Philologist, specialist in the Celtic Languages († August 19th 1875).
- May 26th: Mathilde Bonaparte, girl of Jerome Bonaparte († 1904).
- August 30th: Gustave Gray, French photographer († 1884).
- October 17th: Edouard Rock, French astronomer († 1883).
- November 18th: James William Abert, officer and an Exploring American († 1897).
- November 28th: Friedrich Engels, Communist Philosopher († 1895).
- September 29th: Duke of Bordeaux, wire of the Duke of Berry.
- Eugene Mascara: perfumer and a French business man († 1887).
Death in 1820
- January 9th: Charles-Louis Clérisseau, French architect (1721 -1820).
- February 3rd: Long Gia, first emperor of the dynasty of the Nguyễn to the Vietnam.
- February 13rd: Charles Ferdinand d' Artois, duke of Berry, French prince is assassinated by Louis Pierre Louvel.
- April 20th:
- Benjamin West, American painter, with London (1738 -1820).
- Arthur Young, agronomist British (1741-1820), celebrates by his Travels in France .
- April 25th: Volney, moralist and historian French ideologist (1757 -1820).
- May 21st: Curro Guillén (Francisco Herrera Rodríguez), Spanish Matador (° November 16th 1783).
- June 19th: Sir Joseph Banks, naturalist and explorer English (1743 -1820).
Be-X-old: 1820 Map-bms: 1820 Simple: 1820 Zh-yue: 1820 年
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