This page relates to the year 1819 Gregorian Calendrier.
- May 8th: The colonel Julien Schmaltz sign the Treaty of Ndiaw with the king of the Waalo which leads to the creation of a series of commercial stations along the river Senegal (Bakel, 1820; Dagana, 1821; Merinaghen, 1822; Lampsar, 1843; Sénoudébou, 1845), not without confrontations with the local chefferies and States.
- colonel Schmaltz, governor of the Senegal, sets up an agricultural vast project of colonization, in the area of the Waalo (Coton, Indigo…). It will be abandoned after its failure in 1831 (lack of colonists and labor, insecurity in the area).
- September 21st: A squadron free - British intervenes with Tunis and obliges the bey to condemn the race and to release all the Christian prisoners.
- October 28th: The dey of Algiers Hussein compromises on the debt of corn had by France which is reduced to 7 franc million. He will receive 4 in 1820 from them.
- a fleet free - British blocks the roads of Algiers. France and the the United Kingdom seek to make pressure on the Dey to obtain the payment of the debts towards the the United Kingdom and the cancellation of the French debts.
- November 20th: Died of the British esporator Joseph Ritchie during a forwarding in the Fezzan with Lyon.
- Victoire of Tchaka on Zwide: from 260 km ² approximately, its States pass to 30 000 km ².
- After the defeat of Zwide the people Nguni are divided into several groups of which some will migrate towards north, conduits in particular by Sochangane, Nxaba and Zouangendaba. They will be at the origin of the people Ngoni.
- Forwarding of Frederic Cailliaud in the kingdom of Sennar (fine in 1822).
- Arrived at the Cape of John Philip of the London Missionary Society. Evangelist of the Hottentots, the Grika and the Bantou, it is a solved adversary of slavery and racial discrimination.
- Creation of the West African Methodist Church in Sierra Leone.
- Of the catholic missions penetrates in Western Africa, dedicated to the evangelization of pagan and the fight against the traffic of slaves. The congregation of the Fathers of the Holy Spirit attempts to push back the projection of the Islam in Uganda. It settles with the Gabon, with the French Congo, into low Guinea, with the Senegal and in Ivory Coast.
- January 17th: Bolívar is elected president by the Congress which proclaims the republic of Grande Colombia (1819-1830).
- February 22nd: Treated of Adams-Onís. The the United States repurchase the Florida with the Spain. They give up in exchange any claim on the Texas.
- August 7th: Bolívar releases the News-Grenade after the decisive victory of Boyacá.
- December 14th: The Alabama becomes the State twenty-second of the American Union.
- January 29th: Sir Thomas Stamford Raids, an agent of the English Company of the Eastern Indies, occupies Singapore on an island which it buys to the sultan Johore the February 6th. The “city of the lions” quickly takes a considerable rise until becoming largest port of the Far East.
- October 23rd: Popular insurrection with Alep, caused by the rejection of the governor named by the Door Khûrchîd Pasha and the economic crisis. The resistance, led by a council of notable chaired by Aga Khûdja, will hold 101 days.
- the British government acquires the exclusive privilege of the trade with the sultanate of Atjeh (Aceh).
- Fall of the Empire marathe: the Britanniques control all the India.
- the king of the Panjab Ranjit Singh seizes the Cachemire on the Afghans, with the assistance of former officers of the army of Napoleon i.
- March 23rd: assassination of the poet August von Kotzebue with Mannheim, adviser of the tsar, by the student in theology Karl Sand engaged in the radical movements. Metternich takes it for pretext to reinforce the reaction in Germany.
- : Secret convention of Teplitz. The Prussia and the Austria agree to repress the patriotic and democratic movements.
- 6 - August 31st: With the congress of Karlsbad, Metternich obtains German sovereigns the control of the universities by the installation of curators and the prohibition of the secret societies coeds ( Burschenschaft ). The censure is restored and a commission of the Germanic confederation, established with Mainz must inquire into the revolutionary intrigues (Décrets of Karlsbad).
August 16th, the United Kingdom: Massacre Peterloo, bloody repression of a popular demonstration against the protectionist laws on cereals with Saint Peter' Field, close to Manchester by Wellington. Eleven died and several hundreds of casualties.
- November 23rd: By the Six Acts , the British Parlement temporarily suspends a certain number of freedoms (restriction of the right to meet, suspension of the Habeas Corpus, control of the press).
- December 31st: The reforming minister Humboldt is isolated capacity in Prussia.
- a territorial commission meets in Frankfurt and founds the Germanic Confédération, which gathers thirty-four Sovereign states, of which the free Prussia, and four cities, under the presidency of the emperor of Austria with a representative body, the Diète of Frankfurt.
- Italy: The general Guglielmo Pepe, member of the Carbonari, arms the owners with the province of Avellino and Foggia against the brigands.
- antijuives Riots in Bavaria during the summer. Crowd plunders the houses and the stores of the Jews.
- David Ricardo defends the liberal theses before the Parliament at the time of its mandate of deputy (1819 - 1823). The doctrines free-traders of the Manchester school run up against the partisans of the land interest.
- the Travail of the children of less than 9 years is interdict with the the United Kingdom.
See also: 1819 in France
- September 5th: Beginning of an exploration of the the Antarctic by Bellingshausen and Lazarev (1819 - 1821).
- the prince Kotchoubeï becomes Police force and Minister of Interior Department.
- Alexandre Ier of Russia meets Barbara de Krüdener (1764 - 1824), which persuades it that it is in charge of the mission of restoring plain Christendom.
- Of the military colonies revolts in Ukraine.
- the major Łukasinski founds a maconnic cabin in the Polish army. He declares himself in favor of the Polish Constitution of 1791.
- Development of a Finnish constitution which remains with the state of project.
- Stamping from the serfs of Livonie.
- New customs tariff, liberal, removing prohibitions. Opposition of the industrialists.
Arts & cultures
- Creation in Russia of a Company for the encouragement of the artists (academic).
- royal Theater of Berlin (1819-1821) realized by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neo-classic style.
- First exposure of art and industry, to Paris, the Museum of Louvre
- Installation of Mrs Récamier with the Abbey-with-Wood in Paris.
Sciences and technology
See also: 1819 in science
Births in 1819
- February 8th: John Ruskin, writer and social reformer British
- March 1st:
- Władysław Taczanowski, zoologist Polish († March 17th 1890)
- François-Marie-Benjamin Richard, archbishop of Paris.
- April 9th: Annibale de Gasparis, Astronomer and Mathematician Italy N.
- May 5th: Stanislaw Moniuszko, type-setter and theater director Polish († June 4th 1872)
- May 24th: Victoria, queen of the United Kingdom
- May 31st: Walt Whitman, poet and humanistic American
- June 10th: Gustave Courbet, painter, French, († 1877)
- August 13rd: George Gabriel Stokes, mathematician and physicist Irish
- September 18th: Jean Bernard Leon Foucault, French physicist
- September 20th: Theodore Chassériau, French painter
- November 12th: Monier Monier-Williams, English linguist († April 11th 1899)
Death in 1819
- January 8th: Valentine Vodnik, Slovenien poet (1758 -1819).
- June 5th: Bodawpaya, or " Bodawphaya" , king de Birmanie (today Myanmar) of 1782 at 1819. (° March 11th 1745).
- July 6th: Sophie Blanchard, balloon pilot Frenchwoman.
- July 18th: Barthelemy Faujas of Saint-Bottom, geologist and vulcanologist French (° 1741).
- July 20th: John Playfair, British mathematician .
- October 29th: François Guillaume Ducray-Duminil (1761 -1819), French writer author of popular novels of adventures.
Beats-smg: 1819 Be-X-old: 1819 Map-bms: 1819 Simple: 1819 Zh-yue: 1819 年
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