This page relates to the year 1815 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 8th: Prohibition of the trade of the slaves by the joined together European powers with Vienna thanks to the intervention of Castlereagh. The warships French and British are authorized to intercept the suspect ships, to control them and judge and condemn, for piracy, the crews of the slave ships. The draft persists however.
- April 6th: The British reassign the island Bourbon in France.
- With died of the king Naba Sagha Ier, the kingdom of Ouagadougou knows bloody dynastic conflicts, the rule of succession of the father to the son substituent with the habit of devolution in favor of a brother.
- Turbid in several provinces of the Empire of Sokoto. The Haoussa, encouraged by the Tuareg of the Air and by the sovereign of the Kanem and the Bornou, reject the Islam. Mohammed Bello restores the calm one.
- January 5th: Convention of Hartford to the the United States; the delegates of the States propose constitutional amendments: loads of taxes and representation proportional to the population of each States, nonrenewable presidential mandate.
- January 8th: Battle of New-Orleans, victory of the Americans over the British (the signature of the Treated of Ghent not being yet known on the other side of the Atlantic).
- January 21st: Louis-Joseph Papineau becomes president of the legislative Parliament of the Low-Canada. It engages the nationalist fight on the constitutional ground. The Parliament runs up against the executive power.
- June, Canada: First aggression of the Wood-Flarings against the colonists of Assiniboia on the Red River. The colonists must give up their batches temporarily. They will be again driven out by it in June 1816 by the mongrels directed by Cuthbert Grand. Twenty-two colonists are massacred.
- Agreement between the US government and the Indians, who obtain the right to exploit the current territories of the Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wyoming, Montana and Dakota.
- Construction of the first military vapor, the WORN Fulton .
- January 10th: Victoire of the freedom fighters to the Battle of Guayabos in Uruguay.
- June 18th: The colonel Boyer de Peyreleau makes the very same day proclaim the imperial government with the Guadeloupe of Waterloo. He will be condemned to death.
- December 22nd: Jose Maria Morelos there Pavon, généralissime of the insurgent forces of the Mexican revolution of 1810 after the death of Miguel Hidalgo Costilla is shot there with San Cristobal Ecatepec. The Spaniards, supported by the criollos (creole), complete the reconquest of the country.
- December 16th: The Portugal gives its independence to the kingdom of the Brésil (1815 - 1822). It preserves until in 1832 the monopolies of wood-Brazil and diamond.
- February 18th: The Britanniques demolish the king of Kandy to Ceylon, weakens by the sling of a fraction of the aristocracy against the monarchy passed to the hands of a dynasty originating in the south of India. They seize the island after the signature of the convention of Kandy, the March 2nd (fine in 1816).
- 5 - April 10th: Volcanic eruption of the volcano Tambora, of the island of Sumbawa in Indonesia, 90% of the population of the island dies (more 50 000 dead). The eruption causes climatic anomalies all around the world. The volcano projects a great quantity of ashes in the atmosphere, which causes a fall of temperature and poor harvests in 1816. In New England, this year is known like the year without summer. 200 000 victims of the hunger in Europe.
- It is the most gigantic known eruption which made approximately 120 000 victim on the spot. Ashes were projected with nearly 44 km of altitude in stratosphere (See work of the American climatologist Michael Chenoweth and the Icelandic volcanologist Haraldur Sigurðsson).
- China: The government publishes payments authorizing the civils servant to go to edge foreign ships to seek the Opium there. The smuggling and the corruption of the administrators make it possible to the British to continue their trade.
The Middle East & Arab World
- Persian: The shah prepares an incursion into the Othoman provinces. Encouraged by the Russians and having lost any hope of expansion towards north, it is turned again in direction of the Ottoman Empire.
- Arabia: Méhémet constrained Ali the Wahhabites with peace.
- April 11th: Omar Aga, Dey d' Alger.
- the Congrès of Vienna prohibits the race.
- Died with Fès of Abdul Abbas Ahmed el-Tijânî, founder of the brotherhood of the Tijânî, represented in North Africa like in the south of the Sahara. The installation of the brotherhood with Fès had been encouraged by the sultan Mulay Slimane. Anxious to reduce the influence of the other brotherhoods, this last is opposed to the marabouts and sends a forwarding in the area of the Haouz against Zawiyya Cherrada. The tijânî meet the sympathy of the middle-class and the makhzen (government).
- January: The the United Kingdom, the France and the Austria sign with Vienna a secret treaty which guarantees the re-establishments in their rights of the old reigning dynasties.
- March 1st - June 18th: The Hundred Days in France.
- March 13rd: Seventh coalition. Napoleon is declared outlaw.
- April 7th: Creation of the lombard-Venetian Kingdom.
- April 23rd: Beginning of the Second Serb revolt of Milos Obrenovic against the Othoman capacity supported by the Russia (fine in 1817).
- 2 - May 3rd: Decisive Austrian Victoire on Joachim Murat, king of Naples to the Battle of Tolentino.
- June 8th: German confederal Act.
- June 9th: Traité of Vienna signed at the conclusion of the Congrès of Vienna leads by the Austrian statesman, the prince Clément de Metternich. It fixes the new borders of the Europe.
- the current Belgium is integrated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
- the kingdom of Galicie is created and integrated into the Austria.
- Creation of the Germanic Confederation.
- Neutrality of the Swiss Confederation.
- the Sweden receives the Norway.
- the Russia is main near total of the Lithuania.
- Creation of the Kingdom of the Congress and the free City of Cracow.
- Malta, Maurice and the Seychelles becomes British.
- British Protectorate on the Ionian islands (1815 - 1863).
- June 16th: Ligny. Beginning of the countryside of the Hundred Days in Belgium
- June 18th: Demolished of Napoleon to the Battle of Waterloo.
- June 22nd: Napoleon abdicates for the second time.
- June-September: “white Terror” in France exerted by the Royalist bands against the partisans of the Revolution or the Empire.
- July 8th: Louis XVIII of return to Paris (Second Restoration).
- 14 - August 22nd: election in France of the “untraceable Room” dominated by the ultraroyalists.
- September 24th: The duke of Richelieu, a former emigrant of moderated spirit, becomes Prime Minister in France.
- September 26th: Constitution of the the Holy Alliance in Europe.
- November 20th:
- second treaty of Paris; occupation of France, which is brought back to its borders of 1790.
- Quadruple Alliance between the Austria, the Prussia, the Russia and the the United Kingdom.
- Pictet de Rougemont, a Swiss diplomat, writes the “Act of recognition of the perpetual neutrality of the Suisse” signed soon by all the governments of Europe.
- Fundamental law of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The king Guillaume Ier of the Netherlands accepts a constitution based on the representative mode: a room is named by the king, the other by the provincial States reconstituted according to their old form.
- Johan Stadion is named Minister for Finance in Austria (fine in 1824).
- maritime Preponderance of the the United Kingdom, whose borders are guaranteed definitively against the French threat.
- the pope Pie VII defines the statute of the pontifical State reconstituted.
See also: 1815 in France
- May 3rd: free City of Cracow.
- June 4th: Interview with Heilbronn between Alexandre Ier of Russia and Barbara de Krüdener, the “mystical baroness”.
- June 9th:
- the Congress of Vienna, enclosed the June 9th (May 28th of the Calendar Julien ), concedes with the tsar most of the Polish territories, the Finland and the Bessarabia.
- Constantin, brother of the tsar, becomes viceroy of Poland.
- the Prussia creates the Grand-duché of Posen, autonomous territory managed by a viceroy, the prince Anton Radziwiłł, assisted of a governor. The Code Napoleon is replaced there by the Prussian right. A provincial diet ( Landstag ) is elected by the indirect suffrage, which gives a majority to the Poles. Into Prussia-Western, the Poles, who represent from 40% to 50% of the population, do not have any special right. The germanisation is carried out by the means of the administration and the property of the ground, the Polish fields passing in German hands.
- July 30th: Departure of Kronstadt for the Peaceful of the forwarding of Otto von Kotzebue on the Riourik .
- November 15th: Alexandre Ier of Russia grants to the new kingdom Poland a liberal constitution developped at the point by Czartoryski. The kingdom of Poland is bound by a personal union to the Russian empire. It has of an elected diet, a government and an army.
- December 9th: Józef Zajączek is named governor of the Royaume of the Congress.
- Araktcheïev occupies the front of the political scene in Russia. Konovnitsyne becomes Minister for the War (fine in 1819).
- Turbid peasants in the provinces of Poltava, Koursk and Orenburg.
- 30 000 Russian soldiers on 150 000 occupants in France.
Arts & cultures
Creation of the Polytechnic school of Vienna directed until in 1850 by Jean-Joseph von Prechtl.
- Beginning of the realization of the Royal Pavilion of Brighton by John Nash (fine in 1823).
Sciences and technology
See also: 1815 in science
Economy & Company
- the High-Canada account 80 000 inhabitants. Its population increases considerably by the contribution of emigrant come from the United States and the metropolis and passes to more 210 000 in 1830 and with more 340 000 in 1835.
- exports of the the United States towards the the United Kingdom undergo a considerable fall due at the end of the war in Europe. Between 1814 and 1816, the prices drop by 25%.
- 1,5 million hectares were touched by the Enclosure S since the 16th century.
the expenditure of war led the government to give a course forced to the tickets issued by the bank of England (27 million £ of 1792 at 1815) and the local banks, the Country Banks (30 million). The coin and thesaurized, and the currency-ticket circulates, and like it does not cease increasing in volume, it produces an effect of rise of the prices. With peace, confidence in this currency decreases, whereas the bear speculation breaks out.
the economist David Ricardo exposes a theory of the economic Libéralisme in its principles of the political economy and the tax .
- the government of the kingdom of Lombardy-Venezia combines absolutist leaders with a more moderate administration which entrusts responsibilities to the productive classes, landowners and commercial. This administration and the legal and land structures are inherited the Napoleonean period. The relations with the Church are marked by a strong control of the State (nomination of the bishops by the Emperor and confirmation of the sale of the ecclesiastical goods). The obligatory military service is maintained, spending four years to eight years. The commercial relations with France and the rest of the world undergo a crushing argument by a new tariff putting the economy at the service of Austria.
- In the duchy of Parma, Marie-Louise of Austria, assisted of the general Adam Albert de Neipperg maintains the legislation Napoleonean except for a new civil code. It does not make any concession with the Church and the clergy, sticking to the terms of the Concordat. It supports the instruction and the economy.
- the Grand Duchy of Toscane returns to the code léopoldin of the 18th century, by maintaining its improvements (abolition of the strongholds and trusts, institution of the register and the commercial law, law on the mortgages). The Jésuites are not authorized to return, the ecclesiastical sale of the goods is confirmed, the freedom of trade is restored and it police force is less severe than in the other States.
- In the remainder of the Italian States, the sovereigns have a will reactionary. With Naples, Metternich and the British must intervene to prevent Ferdinand Ier of Naples from not launching out in a bloody purification. It grants the amnesty of bad grace, confirms the transfer of ecclesiastical goods as well as the titles granted by Murat, guarantees the access to all to the public office. It dismantles feudalism (suppression of trusts and the rights of use of communal). The taxation is balanced and bearable for the populations, but the State ignores the regulation of the public expenditure and the development of the trade. It must agree of the customs advantages with the the United Kingdom and France, causing the dissatisfaction with the landowners.
- In the Papal States, all the French legislation is abolished of a blow. The old ecclesiastical courts are reconstituted and revise the lawsuits educated under Napoleon. Feudal justice, the Enquiry, the the Holy Office and the state monopoly on the food products are restored. The French innovations are gummed: the civil statue, the Vaccinates, public lighting. The Juifs regain their ghettos.
- With Modena, the Napoleonean legislation is abolished and the administration purified with the profit of the nobility legitimist. The public purses become again personal finances of the sovereign, the Jesuits and the religious orders are restored.
- With the Piedmont, the Napoleonean codes are replaced by the old legislation. The Juifs regain their ghettos, the Vaudois are again the object of vexation, those which collaborated with the French are distant from all responsibilities. Industrial corporations and privileges are restored. The ecclesiastical sale of the goods is confirmed, the religious orders are restored and the Jésuites are seen entrusting teaching and the censure.
- the Grand Duchy of Posen account 776 000 inhabitants for 29 000 km ². The kingdom of Galicie 3,5 million inhabitants for 77 000 km ². The republic of Cracow 88 000 inhabitants and 1 164 km ². The kingdom of Poland 120 000 km ² and 3,3 million inhabitants.
- the Congrès of Vienna envisages the freedom of trade and navigation between the Polish territories divided between the various nations.
- Industrialization of the area of Saint-Pétersbourg.
- Construction of the first Russian Steamer.
Births in 1815
- February 8th: Auguste Lacaussade, French poet († 1897).
- February 21st: Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, French painter.
- April 8th: Andrew Graham, Astronomer Irish.
- April 22nd: Wilhelm Peters, zoologist and an Exploring German († 1883).
- May 6th: Eugene Labiche, French playwright († 1888)
- November 2nd: George Boole, Logician and British mathematician, founder of mathematical logic († 1864).
- May 20th: Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières, military French called Vauban of the 19th century († 1895)
- November 12th: Elisabeth C. Stanton, militant feminist American († 1902).
- November 17th: Martin Nadaud, French politician († 1898).
- December 10th: Ada Lovelace, British pionnière of data processing († November 27th 1852)
Death in 1815
- June 20th:
- George Montagu, British Naturalist (° 1753.
- Guillaume Philibert Duhesme, military wounded French, Major general mortally to the Battle of Waterloo (° July 7th 1766).
- June 27th: Jean-Baptiste Girard, military general French, and Baron d' Empire, which was useful during the wars of the Revolution and of the Empire, wounded mortally with the Bataille of Ligny. (° February 21st 1775).
- August 19th: Charles of Bédoyère, General of France, shot.
- October 18th: Claude Alexis Cochard, lawyer and politician French, appointed of the Third state with the General states of 1789. (° May 1st 1743).
- December 7th: Michel Ney, Marshal of Empire, duke of Elchingen, prince of Moskowa, shot (° 1769)
- December 19th: Benjamin Smith Barton, American botanist (° 1766).
- December 22nd: Jose Maria Morelos there Pavon, priest and insurgent Mexican.
- December 29th: Sawtche, called the Venus Hottentote , slave Khoïkhoï (° 1789?)
Beats-smg: 1815 Be-X-old: 1815 Map-bms: 1815 Simple: 1815 Zh-yue: 1815 年
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