This page relates to the year 1812 Gregorian Calendrier.
- Conquest of the Suurveld in South Africa.
- Colony of the Cape: Land law limiting the properties to 480 ha instead of 2 400 before.
the Peuls of Usman daN Fodio attack the Bornou again. Dounama, successor of Ahmed, only resist, but its capital, Gasr Eggomo, is destroyed. El-Kanemi helps it and stops the expansion peule in the east. Its influence and its prestige increase with the detriment of those of May. It receives half of the taxes raised in the provinces which it defended and establishes in Bornou several tribes which are devoted for him.
- With the assistance of Abd el-Kérim, sultan of the Ouadaï, El-Kanemi occupies the Baguirmi, old tributary of the Bornou, but the two winners are made the war for the division of the spoils until in 1824.
- April 30th: The Louisiana becomes the eighteenth state of the American Union.
- June 18th, War of 1812: The the United States declare the war with the the United Kingdom (fine in 1815), decision caused by the opposition of Great Britain to any trade between the the United States and France and to the boarding of American ships which make the trade with the France by the British.
- August 16th, War of 1812: The British major-general Isaac Brock and Tecumseh seizes Détroit, with a coalition of militiamans, regular Britanniques and of warlike Amerindians.
- October 13rd: Decisive British Victoire with the Battle of Queenston Heights.
- Canada: Lord Selkirk, noble Scot philanthropist, obtains Compagnie of Hudson Bay 116 000 acres of ground in freehold around the Red River to create the colony of Assiniboia. The British company hopes to make of it a reserve of personnel and a production center of Pemmican to supply its stations. The first colonists have problems and the Compagnie of the North-West tries to sabotage the colony by discouraging the colonists and while utilizing against it the mongrel population established on the spot (1815).
- Russian Counter with Strong Ross in California, creates for hunting for the Otarie and to supply the Russian counters with Alaska (fine in 1841).
- March 26th: a Earthquake destroys the town of Caracas to the Venezuela, making twelve thousand victims.
- July 25th: capitulation of the general Venezuelan Francisco de Miranda.
- July 31st: the Spaniards occupy the very young Republic of the Venezuela.
- November 25th, War of independence of Mexico: The priest and chief rebel Mexican Jose María Morelos enters to Oaxaca after having demolishes the Mexican royal troops. It takes possession of vast territories between 1812 and 1814.
- December 31st: Battle of Cerrito at the time of the war of independence of Uruguay.
- May 26th: Beginning of the voyage of the explorer William Moorcroft in the the Himalayas, with the Tibet and the Cashmere (fine in 1825).
Abolition of the “Galleon of Manila” which bound the archipelago of the Filipino to the Spanish colonies of America.
China: the insurrectionists of the Sect of the Celestial Reason to the Henan, carried out by Flax Qing, are crushed by the governmental troops.
Economic crisis in Korea. One the third of the inhabitants succumbs to the famine. Revolt country Hong Kyong-nae in the province of Pyongyang. Joined by dissatisfied civils servant, merchants, well-read men, it finds one supports important among the peasants, but the insurrectionists are finally massacred by the royal troops.
The Middle East & Arab World
- August 22nd: The Swiss explorer Jean Louis Burckhardt discovers the ancient city of Pétra.
- October 31st: Victoire of the Russians of Pyotr Kotlyarevsky to the Battle of Azlanduz on the Persian S of Abbas Mirza. The British to sir Gore Ouseley is in charge of the mediation between the Perses and the Russians.
- the Othoman sultan and the top dog stick to the interior reforms.
- Relations between the sultan of the sherifs and the emir 'Abd-Allah ibn Sa' ud via the son of the sultan of Morocco, Mulay Ibrahim, at the time of a pilgrimage with Mecque. A meeting between Moroccan theologists and Wahhabites is organized.
- the pasha of Egypt Méhémet Ali undertakes a vast program of reforms by in particular modifying the payment of the exploitation of the grounds by the introduction of a state monopoly. It gives to the country a centralized administration, organizes a powerful army and starts to shake the bonds of vassalage which still bind it to the Door.
- Méhémet Ali restores the pilgrimage with Mecque removed in 1803 by the Wahhabites.
- Méhémet Ali makes draw up a land register and distributes to the peasants of the grounds of which they have the Usufruit Viager. It directs the production, develops the system of irrigation and introduced the culture of the Coton (Twin), of the Canne to sugar and the Riz. It makes install textile industries by French and Italian technicians.
- January 1st: Application of the French law in the Provinces it (end in August 1814).
- January 20th: Napoleon makes occupy the Swedish Poméranie for better doing to apply the continental Blocus.
- February 23rd: alliance free-Prussian.
- March 4th:
- free-Austrian Alliance.
- Castlereagh is named Foreign Minister of the the United Kingdom (fine in 1822).
- March 11th: Emancipation of the Jewish S in Prussia.
- March 29th: Exile with Nijni-Novgorod of Mikhail Mikhailovich Speranski, francophile reformer, shown treason by the tsar Alexandre Ier of Russia.
- April 8th: the tsar Alexandre Ier of Russia addresses an ultimatum to Napoleon.
- April 9th: treaty Russo-Swedish. Interview of Åbo between the tsar Alexandre Ier of Russia and Bernadotte, which leads to the Örebro treaty. The Russia promises to attack the Denmark.
- Alexandre Ier of Russia sends an ultimatum requiring the evacuation by the French troops of the territories between Elba and Oder.
- May 28th: Treaty of Bucharest. End of the war between the Ottoman Empire and the Russia (Koutouzov), which occupies the Bessarabia (fine in 1856). The sultan commits himself granting autonomy to the Serbes revolted since 1804.
- May 11th: assassination of the British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval.
- Napoleon is with Dresden at the end of May with the head of 600 000 men (of which only 300 000 French).
- June: Napoleon accepts the idea of Tadeusz Maluszewicz (1765-1819) of a confederation of the Szlachta , which declares the restoration of the Royaume of Poland, to which adheres the insurgent Lithuania.
- June 2nd: Secret agreement austro-Russian.
- June 8th: beginning of the ministry tory Robert Banks Jenkinson, count de Liverpool, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1827).
- June 23rd: beginning of the countryside of Russia. Napoleon invades the Russia with the head of 450 000 men. Napoleon is inserted in Russia without managing to destroy the Russian army which always manages to be folded up. He occupies Moscow then withdraws himself. 40 000 men only will return in France.
- Koutouzov is named general-in-chief of the Russian army.
- 24 - June 25th: Napoleon crosses the Niémen.
- June 26th: Napoleon takes Wilno.
- July 18th: treaty of Örebro britanno-Russo-Swedish.
- July 23rd: Battle of Mohilev.
- July 24th: Napoleon takes Vitebsk.
- 25 - July 26th: French Victoire on the Russians with the Battle of Ostrovno.
- July 30th -: Russian Victoire with the Battle of Klyastitsy.
- 16 - August 17th: French Victoire with the battles of Smolensk.
- 17 - August 18th: First battle of Polotsk.
- August 18th: Battle of Valutino
- 5 - September 7th: Undecided battle of Borodino (Battle of Moskowa). 130 000 French face 140 000 Russians. The Russians lose 58 000 men, the French 35 000. The Russians ebb towards Moscow, which it give up then.
- September 14th, Taken of Moscow: entry of the Large army in Moscow.
- 15 - September 18th: set fire to Moscow.
- October 18th: Russian victories with the Battle of Winkowo and the Second battle of Polotsk (18 with the October 20th).
- October 19th: beginning of the Retirement of Russia. Napoleon in vain awaits the peace overtures of the tsar and the October 22nd orders the retirement towards the Niémen.
- October 23rd: coup d'etat fallen through of the general Malet in France.
- October 24th: Battle of Maloyaroslavets.
- October 31st: Russian Victoire with the Battle of Czaśniki.
- November 3rd: Russian Victoire with the Battle of Viazma.
- 13 - November 14th: Russian Victoire Battle of Smoliani in Bielorussia.
- 15 - November 17th: Battle of Krasnoi.
- 26 - November 28th: passage of Bérézina. The Large army returns decimated (less 50 000 soldiers survivors).
- December 3rd: Ermolov becomes Head of State major of Russian Armed Anger.
- December 23rd: Entry of Alexandre Ier of Russia to Wilno.
- December 30th: the Prussians (York general) sign a convention of neutrality with the Russians.
- December: riots of Penza, in Russia; the peasants believe in the abolition of the Servage.
- After the disastrous countryside of Napoleon in Russia, Metternich proposes an Austrian mediation to conclude a peace from compromise which would have left France in its “natural borders” (Belgium and left bank of the Rhine). Napoleon refuses.
- the countryside of Russia carried out by Napoleon gives birth to among Poles the hope from a complete restoration from their country. They bring to the Large army a body of almost 100 000 men. Their chief, Józef Poniatowski, finds a death heroic by covering the retirement of the French after Leipzig (October 1813).
- the Prussian minister Karl Stein is called in Russia, where he becomes the personal adviser of the tsar.
- Sicilian Constitution (1812 - 1816).
- January: decree confirming the annexation of the Catalonia by the France.
- March 16th - April 6th: Anglo-Portuguese Victoire with the Battle of Badajoz. Offensive of Wellington on the axis Ciudad-Rodriguo, Badajoz.
- March 18th: The the Cortes of Cadiz work out a liberal and centralizing constitution (constitutional monarchy), which will never be applied. Elected by the vote for all, the Cortes must play a crucial role vis-a-vis the king, who preserves a right to veto.
- July 20th: alliance of Velikie Louki between the Russia and the Cortes of Spain.
- July 22nd: demolished Marmont against Wellington with the Battle of Arapiles (Salamanque).
- August 12th: Madrid is evacuated temporarily by the imperial ones. The Andalusia is lost.
- September 18th - October 22nd: Failure of britano-Spanish in front of Burgos.
- November: Soult takes again Madrid. Wellington is folded up on the Portugal.
See also: 1812 in France
Arts & cultures
Officer of hunters with horse of the imperial guard charging , fabric of Géricault.
- William Turner painted the passage of the Alps by Hannibal .
- the marbles of Elgin (the Plank of the Parthenon) arrive at the the United Kingdom.
- Beginning of work of the Regent Street with London by John Nash.
- Is the name of the opus 49 of Tchaïkovski
Sciences and technology
See also: 1812 in science
Economy & Company
- the Russia account 42,75 million inhabitants. The scorched earth policy leaves the devastated territory. An extreme poverty will remain during all the 19th century, in particular in Bielorussia, whose many inhabitants will emigrate in Siberia or with the the United States.
Births in 1812
- February 7th: Charles Dickens, British writer.
- March 5th: Michael Echter, German painter († February 4th 1879).
- March 6th: Aaron Lufkin Dennison in Freeport, Hand., the U.S.A. initiator of the American System off Watch Manufacturing.
- March 12th: Joseph Prestwich, British geologist .
- March 25th: Alexandre Herzen, Russian writer.
- April 3rd: Louise of Orleans, first queen of the Belgian
- April 15th: Theodore Rousseau, French painter.
- May 7th: Robert Browning, British poet.
- May 18th: Adolph Eduard Grube, zoologist Polish († June 23rd 1880)
- June 9th: Johann Galle, German Astronomer.
- August 20th: Bernardo Gaviño, Spanish Matador († February 11th 1886).
- November 30th: Auguste Duméril, zoologist French († 1870).
Death in 1812
- February 28th: Hugo Kołłątaj, militant and political writer, theorist and philosopher Polish (° April 1st 1750)
- March 11th: Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, Franco-English painter (° October 31st 1740)
- June 1st: Richard Kirwan, Irish geologist.
- July 10th: Carl Ludwig von Willdenow, Botanist and German Pharmacist (° 1765).
- September 7th Auguste Jean-Gabriel de Caulaincourt, killed with the Battle of Borodino.
- September 19th: Meyer Amschel Rothschild (1743 -1812), originating in Francfort-sur-le-Main, founder of the dynasty of banker (see Family Rothschild).
Be-X-old: 1812 Map-bms: 1812 Simple: 1812 Zh-yue: 1812 年
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