This page relates to the year 1811 Gregorian Calendrier.
- Fourth war kaffir between colonists of South Africa and Bantou. The military setbacks carry the Xhosa to discredit the military chiefs to follow prophets.
Tournée of the Circuit Runs : in the Colonie of the Cape, at the request of Lord Liverpool, Minister for the Colonies, travelling courts are invited to collect the objections that the Hottentot S can have with regard to their Masters Boers.
Zanzibar account 200 000 inhabitants, of which 150 000 slaves.
- January 8th: Revolt from 400 to 500 slaves in the plantation of major Andry, close to the New-Orleans, repressed by the American army and the militia. Sixty-six slaves are killed during the battle and sixteen others judged and shot.
- Mars: Creation of Strong Astoria on the mouth of the Columbia in Oregon by American of the Fur Pacific Company of John Jacob Astor.
- May 31st: Sir George Prevost becomes governor of the Canada (fine in 1815). The favor which he testifies to the French Canadians causes the dissatisfaction with the British minority.
- July 15th: Canadian David Thomson discovers the road of the Pacifique by the river Columbia. He finds with his fattening the Fort Astoria, pertaining to the Americans. The Compagnie of the North-West inherits in 1812 it.
- 6 - November 8th: The governor William Henry Harrison, future ninth President of the United States demolishes the Indians Shawnee of Tecumseh, the Indians having broken the combat for lack of ammunition to the Bataille of Tippecanoe (Indiana) in the valley of Wabash (two hundred on both sides dead), and plunders the Indian city of Prophet' S town.
- December 6th: Earthquake of New Madrid, followed from two others on January 23rd and on February 6th, 1812.
- May 14th: Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia proclaims the independence of the Paraguay.
- April 25th: Victoire of the Uruguyan freedom fighters to the Battle of San Jose.
- May 18th: Victoire of the Uruguyan freedom fighters to the Battle of Mow Piedras.
- July 5th: Francisco de Miranda and Simon Bolivar proclaims the independence of the Venezuela. The insurrectionists, directed by Miranda, run up against the resistance of the creole, anxious oligarchs of the toughening of the movement, the llaneros led by the royalist Jose Tomás Boves. The island of Margarita is one of the seven provinces which sign the Act of the Independence of the Venezuela, decision which was worth to him the attribution of the one of the seven stars which decorate the national flag still today.
- July 30th: With the Mexico, the mongrel and Indian insurrectionists are overcome and carried out by the army loyal supporter. The mongrel priest Jose María Morelos there Pavón (1765 - 1815) joint with the insurrection after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo there Costilla.
- November 22nd: Combat of Arapei-Chico during the war of independence of the Uruguay.
August-September: Java is conquered by the British to sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (fine in 1816). Batavia is occupied the August 8th. The soldiers indonésiens make defection and the Dutch governor Janssens must capitulate the September 18th. The archipelago indonésien is attached to the general government of the British Indies. The Javanese princes who supported the disappointed British its, because Raffles intervenes in their interior matters and proceeds to annexations.
- the process of the forced deliveries is abandoned except for the coffee. Raids intends to introduce with Java the system established into the Bengal: the ground belonging to the government of Batavia, the not cultivated grounds can be yielded to foreign colonists, those already cultivated are rented via the chiefs of village to the farmers who work it. These peasants, in impossibility of discharging rent ( landrente ), borrow and pass under the yoke of the usurers, who are often the chiefs of village themselves. At the same time, the free trade is encouraged. Raids thinks of exporting English cotton fabrics, which implies the disappearance of local industries and the creation of a colonial market.
- September: The doctor Thomas Manning escort a Chinese general through the Tibet. He is the first British to be gone to Lhassa.
- India: Ranjit Singh takes Kangra.
- a Russian naval officer, Vassili Golovnine (1776 - 1831) ventures in the Kouriles. It is hailed by Coast Guard Japan board and captive fact with its crew until in 1813. The authorities Shogun ales benefit from its captivity to question it on Western sciences and the power of Europe. An Office of translation ( Bansho shirabe sho ) is created.
- China: Rising directed by the Sect of the Celestial Reason to the Henan, the Zhili and the Shandong. It gathers poor peasants, servants and small shopkeepers.
- anticatholic Repression with the Sichuan, where several priests are carried out. The Chinese Christians (mandarins and well-read men), obliged to hide, organize themselves in secret societies.
The Middle East & Arab World
- March 1st: The pasha of Egypt Méhémet Ali orders the massacre of the Mamelouks, which constituted an obstacle with its authority, in the citadel of the Cairo. The survivors take refuge with Dongola and start to recruit troops of black slaves.
- August 30th: The Bey de Tunis Hammouda Bey receives the assistance of Napoleon i to repress a revolt of the Janissaire S.
- War between Persia and Russia which gains some victories in the the Caucasus.
- Egyptian Forwardings in Arabia (fine in 1818).
- the sultan of the Morocco Mulay Slimane cannot repress the nearly general revolt of the tribes Berbère S of the Moyen Atlas, directed by Abou-Bekr Amhaouch.
- February 5th: Regency Bill with the the United Kingdom. Regency is allotted to the Prince de Galles, future George IV because of the accesses of madness of the king George III (fine in 1820).
- April: Russia protests against the annexation by France of the duchy of Oldenburg. Rupture of the Franco-Russian agreement.
- May 13rd: naval Bataille of Smoothed
- June 1st: Institution of the Austrian Civil code.
- December 19th: Koutouzov obliges a Turkish army to capitulate close to Roustchouk.
- Beginning of the fight of the movement of the luddists against the Mechanization with the the United Kingdom: workmen, carried out by Ned Ludd (probably mythical) systematically destroy the weaving looms and the tools of the textile factories in the Lancashire, the Yorkshire, and the the Midlands of the East (fine in 1816). Demonstrations take place with Nottingham ( February), with Bulwell ( November) and Leeds (January 1812). In November, the government takes the repressive measurements accommodated well by the population.
- Reorganization of the ministries in Russia, from which the number is changed to 11.
- handwritten Pamphlet of Karamzine, “Memory on the old one and the Russia news”, against the reforms of Speranski.
- March 5th: The Bataille of Barossa is a minor engagement of back keeps close to Cadiz during which a British battalion pushed back two French regiments.
- In April, the situation seems to be turned over to the profit of Wellington and the guerillas: Wellington besieges Almeida. Masséna tries to make him raise the seat.
- April 10th - August 19th: Spanish Victoire with the head office of Figueres
- 3 May 5th: The Bataille of Fuentes de Oñoro opposes the marshal Masséna to the general Lieutenant Arthur Wellesley, close to the lusitano-Spanish border.
- May 16th: The Britanniques allies, Spanish and Portuguese push back the French Army of the marshal Soult with the Bataille of Albuera.
- June 23rd: Battle of Benavides, victory of the Spaniards over the French (death of the French general Valletaux)
- August 6th: The insurrectionary Cortes recognize the abolition of the system seigneurial. The preferences, seigneuriaux rights and royalties due to the clergy are abolished.
- the Cortes assimilated the seigniory, property eminent, with the real property: the Spanish aristocracy loses its right feudal but increases its properties considerably. In Andalusia, in Estrémadure, Latifundia are formed.
See also: 1811 in France
Arts & cultures
the British architect John Nash starts to conceive Regent Street, with London.
- the match of Boxing between the British champion Tom Cribb and the American black Tom Molineaux attracts 25,000 spectators.
Sciences and technology
See also: 1811 in science
Economy & Company
- Apogee of the Napoleonean Empire which extends on a hundred and thirty departments which go from Brest to Hamburg, from Amsterdam to Rome and Trieste. 750 000 km ² gather more than seventy million inhabitants of which thirty million only is French. In the Empire as in the satellite States (Confederation of the Rhine, Swiss, Italian Republic, Kingdom of Naples, Spain and Grand Duchy of Warsaw) the Code Napoleon between everywhere into force. Feudalism and serfdom are abolished, and the founded religious liberty (except in Spain). Each State receives a constitution establishing the vote for all for the men as well as a Parliament, and integrating a declaration of the rights. Administrative and legal systems copied on the French model are founded. Schools are subjected to a centralized administration and a free educational system is organized. Higher education is largely opened, without reference of class or religion. Each State sees the creation of an academy and academies devoted to the promotion of arts and sciences.
Bankruptcy with Vienna. All the banknotes are exchanged to 20% of their value against a new paper money (currency Viennese), practically deprived of metal roofing. The Hungarian diet refuses to devaluate.
Crisis of cotton industry in continental Europe: the lack of raw materials (blockade of the coasts) and the increase in the customs duties involve the rise of the selling prices. The sales crumble. The industrialists cannot refund any more the banks which financed their equipment. The banks, which over-estimated their capacities of financing, miss liquidities, and oblige the industrialists of cotton to refund by selling their stocks. The Banque de France refuses to rediscount all the drafts of the other banks, which deprives them of liquidities. Certain establishments go bankrupt with Lübeck, with Amsterdam, Hamburg. The crisis gains all the European banking environment, then the industrialists who, private of liquidities, file for bankruptcy their or close their factories.
Census with the the United Kingdom. Agriculture employs 36% of the English families, that is to say 3,5 million people.
Births in 1811
- February 18th: Barragan (Isidro Santiago Llano), Spanish Matador († April 4th 1851).
- March 11th: Urbain the Glassmaker, mathematician, astronomer, meteorologist and politician French († 1877).
- March 20th: Joseph Charles François Bonaparte wire of the emperor Napoleon.
- June 14th: Harriet Beecher Stowe, writer American, author of Uncle Tom's cabin . († July 1st 1896).
- June 17th: Jón Sigurðsson, chief of the pacifist movement Icelandic. († December 7th 1879).
- June 21st: Pagan Min, king of Burma (1846-1853).
- August 13rd: Domingos Jose Gonçalves de Magalhães, doctor, professor, diplomat, politician, writer and Brazilian poet († July 10th 1882).
- August 30th: Théophile Gautier, poet, novelist and French critic art († 1872).
- October 22nd: Franz Liszt, type-setter and pianist Hungarian
- October 25th: Welsh Évariste, French mathematician († 1832).
- October 29th: Heinrich Wilhelm Adalbert, Military prince of Prussia, and Exploring German († 1873).
Death in 1811
- January 10th: Marie-Joseph Chénier, writer and politician French (Constantinople, 1764 - Paris, 1811), author of the Song of the departure .
- February 9th: Nevil Maskelyne, British Astronomer .
- February 24th: György Bessenyei, Hungarian writer (1747 -1811).
- June 23rd: Jean Andre Valletaux, general French.
- August 22nd: Juan de Villanueva, Spanish architect (° September 15th 1739).
- September 8th: Peter Simon Pallas, Russian zoologist of German origin (° 1741).
- November 27th: Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, economist and Spanish polygraph (1744-1811).
Beats-smg: 1811 Be-X-old: 1811 Map-bms: 1811 Simple: 1811 Zh-yue: 1811 年
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