This page relates to the year 1799 Gregorian Calendrier.
- Beginning of South American explorations of Alexander von Humboldt (fine in 1804).
- the Company of Russo-American fur obtains the monopoly on the trade of Alaska and establishes a counter with Sitka.
- Pierre Samuel of the Bridge of Nemours emigrates with the the United States with its sons of which Éleuthère Irenee of the Bridge of Nemours, where he hopes to establish a colony in Virginia.
- June 3rd: Royal sanction of a law of the Room of assembly for the erection of the law courts of Quebec and Montreal.
- July 29th: Robert Shore Milnes is named governor of the Low-Canada.
- the Room of assembly of the Low-Canada vote the sum of 20 000 £ to help the Great Britain in its war against the France.
- Quebec pedlars found the station of Rocky Mountain house with the confluence of the Saskatchewan of North and the Clearwater to rivet.
Johannes T. Van der Kemp arrives at the Cape on behalf of the London Missionary Society. Doctor and impregnated theologist of levelling humanism, he marries a Hottentote.
Ruin of the kingdom of the Foundj (Blue Nile) by the internal conflicts of the kings and their viziers Hamadj. The kingdom, which already lost the Kordofan with the profit of the Darfur, controls nothing any more but Sennar, the capital, and the Gezirah (“island”), rich ground between the White Nile and the Blue Nile where the irrigation is possible; he knows a succession of murder of sultans until in 1821 before being conquered by the Egypt.
- May 4th: Tippoo-Sahib is overcome and killed by Lord Wellesley with Seringapatam. Mysore falls under British control. The Company appendix part of its territories (Canara) and creates for the remainder of the vassal States.
- British Protectorate on Tanjore.
- the chief of faction sikhe Ranjit Singh benefits from the decline of the Afghan capacity to take Lahore. It establishes a kingdom Sikh in the North-West of the India.
- December 31st: The privilege of the Dutch Compagnie of the Eastern Indies (Dutch East India Company) is not renewed. The Dutch State exploits its possessions directly and seeks to lay down a new colonial policy. The Committee for the Eastern businesses informs the authorities of Batavia which it is necessary to think of gradually introducing the novel ideas of freedom and equality into the Indies. Batavia answers that new the principles are not very well-known for him and that one could not upset the relations established between the indigenous people and princes. The Dutch government ensures that it is not question of applying the principles of liberty and of equality in the Indian possessions as long as they will be “ in the state necessary of subordination ”. Slavery could not be abolished “ until a higher order of general civilization allows the improvement of the fate of the slaves with the co-operation of all the European nations which have possessions overseas ” (April 27th).
The Middle East
After the loss of its fleet with Aboukir, to leave the dead end, Bonaparte undertakes the conquest of the Syria to go up towards the Turkey. It occupies Jaffa, beats the Turkish army with the Mount-Thabor the April 16th (Kléber), but is stopped with the seat of Saint-Jean-D' Acre, because its artillery is insufficient (February-May).
- May 20th: Failure of Bonaparte in front of Saint-Jean-in Acre.
- May: Bonaparte égyptianise administration, carrying a serious blow with the Turkish influence.
- July 19th: Discovered Pierre de Rosette.
- Bonaparte reconsiders its steps then, beats the Turks on ground with Aboukir the July 25th, but is again locked up in its conquest. Anxious of this situation, Bonaparte takes pretext of the second coalition to give up the command with Kléber the August 22nd and to return to France.
- Second coalition: Great Britain - Austria - Russia - Turkey - Deux-Siciles against the France (fine in 1801).
- March 12th: The Directoire declares the war with the Habsbourg to have authorized the passage of Russian troops on their territory.
- the armies of the the Danube (Jourdan), of Swiss (Masséna), of Italy (Scherer, then Moreau) must converge towards Vienna. They run up against the Austrians in Bavaria and Italy, with the Russians in Italy.
- March 25th: Overcome with the battles of Stockach, the Armée with the Danube beats a retreat towards the the Rhine.
- April-June: Overcome with Magnano (Moreau, April 5th) and with Trébie (17 - June 19th) by Souvorov, the army of Italy ebbs on the the Alps.
- 4 - June 7th: Masséna gains a first victory in Zurich, but its discovered sides, must beat a retreat.
- June 17th - June 19th: Battle of Trébia (Souvorov beats the French)
- June 23rd: Convention Russo-British of Saint-Pétersbourg for a campaign in Holland.
- In June, Paul Ier of Russia declares the war with the Spain.
- August 15th: The army of Italy is beaten by the Russians with the Bataille of Novi. The general Joubert is killed there.
- 25 - September 27th: Masséna is victorious Russians of Korsalov to the Second battle of Zurich. The Suisse is placed under “French protection”.
- September 19th, Batavian Republic: Brune demolishes the British task force and a Russian fleet with the battles of Bergen.
- October 2nd, Batavian Republic: the Anglo-Russian army gains the Bataille of Alkmaar.
- October 6th, Batavian Republic: Guillaume Marie-Anne Brune beats the English and the Russians with the Bataille of Castricum.
- October 18th, Batavian Republic: Brown force British to return the weapons by the Convention of Alkmaar.
- October 19th: Paul Ier of Russia breaks with the Great Britain and the Austria.
- October 22nd: The Russians withdraw coalition.
- October 30th: Paul Ier of Russia sign an alliance with the Sweden in Gatchina. After the 18 Brumaire, it thinks of approaching Bonaparte.
See also: Countryside of Italy (1799-1800)
- January: The Neapolitan ones enter in war, go on Rome, but quickly demolished, they beat a retreat. The king of Naples folds up himself in Sicily, while the patriots proclaim the République parthénopéenne.
- 8 - February 16th: Referendum with the Piedmont, which gives a strong majority for the annexation by the France. The process is stopped by the entry of the Russians in Milan (May 28th).
- As of February/March, the troops “sanfedists” of the Cardinal Ruffo occupy the Calabria then the Basilicate.
- antijuives Riots in the Trastevere and the Castelli.
- April 27th: The Russian general Souvorov beats Moreau with Cassano, occupies Milan (April 28th) and Turin (May 26th).
- Macdonald withdraws Naples mid-April and moves to forced march towards north to lend strong hand to the French troops of the Piedmont.
- 17 - June 19th: With the Trébie, Macdonald inflicts heavy losses with Souvorov before beating a retreat. Souvorov, winner, take the title of prince d' Italie.
- June 22nd: Naples is taken again by the troops of the cardinal Ruffo and by the brigands.
- July 7th: Florence is occupied by the insurrectionists.
- August 15th: The army of Italy ebbs on the Alps then is beaten by the Russians with the Bataille of Novi.
- August 18th: Turin is occupied.
- September 30th: The Roman République crumbles.
See also: 1799 in France
- June 18th: meadow Coup d'etat of the 30
- August 24th: Bonaparte leaves Egypt.
- October 14th: the royalist troops of Bourmont occupy Mans
- October 16th: Arrival of Bonaparte to Paris.
- November 9th: Coup d'etat of the 18 Brumaire: end of the Directory; installation of the Consulate.
- December 25th: Implementation of the Constitution of year VIII.
- September: The count Rostopchine and N.P. Panine are placed at the head of the Foreign affairs then of the Chancellery.
- November 12th (November 1st of the Calendar Julien applied in Russia): Decree on the statute of the corporations.
- Creation of the Direction of the prerogatives , intended to save the Treasury the expenditure Court.
- Abolition of the assemblies peerage-books in the provincial governments.
- Creation of the Church Missionary Society.
- Speech on the religion with those of its despisers who are cultivated spirits , of Friedrich Schleiermacher (pietist).
Arts & Cultures
- June 22nd: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Francisco Herrera Rodríguez known as “Curro Guillén”, Spanish Matador.
- David becomes official painter of Napoleon Bonaparte (fine in 1815).
- Silence , table of Füssli (1799 - 1802).
- Sabines , table of David.
Science & technology
See also: 1799 in science
Economy & Company
- Combinations Acts (1799-1800): laws prohibiting the coalitions and comparing the coalition to a penal offense.
the Great Britain is the first state to introduce the income tax ( income tax ).
Births in 1799
- February 8th: John Lindley, British botanist († November 1st 1865)
- February 27th: Frederick Catherwood, British illustrator († 1854).
- May 20th: Honore de Balzac, French novelist († 1850).
- May 21st: Mary Anning, British paleontologist († 1847).
- May 26th: Alexandre Pouchkine, poet, playwright and Russian novelist († 1837).
- May 26th: Felipe Poey, zoologist Cuba in († 1891).
- June 18th: William Lassell, British astronomer († 1880).
- July 19th: Countess of Ségur (Sophie Rostopchine), French novelist († 1874).
- August 11th: Joachim Barrande, geologist and paleontologist French († 1883).
- August 16th: Rigores (Castling Miranda Cop), Spanish Matador († February 14th 1843).
- November 19th: Rene Curdled, exploring French († May 17th 1838)
- December 17th: Antoine-Joseph Jobert, doctor and surgeon French, president of the Academy of Science. († 1867).
Death in 1799
- January 9th: Maria Gaetana Agnesi, mathematician Italy (° May 16th 1718)
- January 22nd: Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, naturalist and geologist, it is regarded as the founder of the Alpinisme. (° 1740)
- February 4th: Etienne-Louis Swell, architect and theorist French (° 1745).
- February 12th: Lazzaro Spallanzani, biologist Italy N (° 1729)
- April 1st: Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier, inventive French (° 1745).
- April 27th: Louis Marie de Caffarelli of Falga, military general French, Brigadier general, of the Revolution (° February 13rd 1756).
- May 9th: Armand Joseph Dubernad, trader, financier, revolutionist (° 1743)
- May 18th: Pierre-Augustin Charon de Beaumarchais, French playwright (° 1732).
- August 15th: Barthelemy Catherine Joubert, general French killed with the Battle of Novi (° 1769).
- August 21st: Johann Julius Walbaum, Doctor and German Naturalist (° 1724).
- August 29th: Pie VI dies in captivity with Valence, after being taken along by the French troops since Florence, successively in Bologna, then in Parma, in Turin, and Grenoble.
- September 7th: Louis-Guillaume Monnier, French botanist (° 1717).
- September 7th: Jan Ingenhousz, doctor and British botanist of origin (° 1730).
- October 6th: William Withering, Doctor and British Botanist , celebrates for its discovery of the Digitaline († 1741).
- December 6th: Joseph Black, chemist and physicist (1728-1799), who discovered the presence of carbon dioxide (Carbonic gas) in the atmosphere.
- December 14th: George Washington, old President of the United States (° 1732).
- December 31st: Jean-François Marmontel, Encyclopédiste and Académicien French (° 1723).
Be-X-old: 1799 Map-bms: 1799 Simple: 1799 Zh-yue: 1799 年
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