This page relates to the year 1791 Gregorian Calendrier.
- Died with Nioro of major Houghton, British explorer, after having visited the valley of the Falémé and the gold-fields of the old kingdom of the Bambouk, before to have reached Tombouctou, its final objective.
- Madagascar: Beginning of the reign of Zakavola, wire of Zanahary, king of the Betsimisaraka. Very unpopular, he is assassinated in 1803 by his subjects.
The United States
- July 2nd: The Cherokee agree to be put under the exclusive protection of the United States at the treaty of Holston.
- September 9th: Official baptism of Washington (District of Columbia).
- November 3rd: with the Battle of Extremely-Wayne (Indiana), the Indians Miami S of the chief Michikinikwa (Small Tortoise) Clearly surprise and beat the major general Arthur Saint, which loses 610 of 1300 men; the Indians have 66 died. It is the worst demolished of Étatsuniens in their wars against the Indians.
- December 5th: George Washington is elected for the second time chair of the United States.
- December 15th: The Bill off Rights (Declaration of the rights), the first ten amendments of the American Constitution, are ratified to regulate certain points concerning the rights of the federal government, the States and the citizen.
- the First amendment stipulates that the Congress will not make any law which restricts the freedom of the word or the press.
- Failure of the general Wayne against the Iroquois.
- the Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson affirms that one should not confront oneself with the Indians when they live inside a State and that the government must expel the white colonists who try to infiltrate on their territories.
- Creation of the first bank of the United States with Philadelphia.
- June 10th: Royal sanction of the constitutional Act (into force the December 26th) which divides the country, by the Rivière of Outaouais, in two provinces: High-Canada (Ontario) and Low-Canada (Quebec). A Legislative council east creates in the two provinces with the image of the House of Lords, as well as a Parliament elected for four years by the vote censitaire and an Executive council. The Church of England receives a dominating influence and grounds, the Reserves of the Clergy.
- Guy Carleton, baron Dorchester is named General governor of Canada. Alured Clarke, lieutenant-governor of the Low-Canada, and Serious John Simcoe, lieutenant-governor of the High-Canada.
- the British possessions of North America (Canada) count 250.000 inhabitants with majority of French origin.
- August 14th: Ceremony of Wood-Caiman.
- August 23rd: Great rising of the slave Boukman. Beginning of the Haitian Revolution, carried out by the slaves. It will lead in 1804 to independence. See also: Bug-Jargal.
- François Dominique All Saints' day Louverture joint with the revolt of the slaves Haiti ens against France.
Havana account 45 000 inhabitants. She plays a part administrative, religious, university, military and naval.
- Beginning of the war sino-Tibetan (end in 1792). The Gurkha of the Nepal invade the Tibet and plunder the monastery of Tashilhunpo to Shigatse. A Chinese task force crushes them and obliges them to become tributary of China (September 1792).
- In India, the British governor Cornwallis in vain tries to take Seringapatam with Tippoo-Sahib.
- the East Indian Company excludes the mongrels (Eurasian) from the right to exert functions in its center.
The Middle East
- in-depth Reform of the Othoman army thanks to European advisers.
- January 12th: Liege is occupied by the Autrichien S.
- Mars: Supplex libellus Valachorum : the Roumanians of Transylvania, in preparation for the convocation of the Diet, claim the equality of the civil laws and policies for the Rumanian Nation. Given to the emperor Léopold II in March, the report is returned by Vienna with the Diet of Klausenburg (Cluj) which rejects it with indignation.
- April: The British Parliament vote the motion of William Wilberforce for the abolition of the Slavery.
- During the summer, the French constituent Assembly requires of the voter of Trier to expel the emigrants who form armies on his territory.
- August 4th: White peace of Sistova (Svištov, in Bulgaria) between the Ottoman Empire and the Austria, which restores its conquests.
- August 27th: Declaration of Pillnitz: threats of the powers in France, if it does not give again with Louis XVI all his capacities, on the initiative of Léopold II.
- October 12th: Johann Georg Jacobi is elected vice-chancellor of the Albertina university of Freiburg-in-Brisgau, becoming the first vice-chancellor protesting of the university.
- October 16th: Souvorov becomes commander-in-chief of the Russian army.
- November 29th: Ultimatum of the legislative Parliament French against the voter of Trier. Léopold II states to support the voter in the event of aggression, but this last, the January 6th 1792, orders the expulsion of the emigrants.
- Reorganization of the Austrian police force by the François archduke.
- the boyards of Valachie ask for the election of princes autochtones, the abolition of the Othoman monopoly of the trade of the cattle, the restitution of the raïas Turkish (territories of Braïla, Giurgiu and Turnu in Valachie, of Akkerman and Binder in Moldavie).
- Taken fortress of Izmail, on the the Danube, by the Russians of Souvorov.
- Zoubov becomes the favorite of Catherine II of Russia.
- Polish Revolution directed by Stanislas Poniatowski:
- Hugo Kołłątaj writes a petition on the initiative of Jean Dekert, mayor of Cracow, signed by 141 cities: she asks the participation of all the cities the Diet, the access of the middle-class men to the offices and the right for them to acquire rural fields. That causes a sharp agitation. One speaks about “revolution to the Frenchwoman”. The conservatives make indicate a special subcommittee for the cities. Following long discussed between the projects the king and those of the Diet, the law on the cities which ratifies the proposals of the petition is voted the April 18th.
May 3rd: The Diète of Poland adopts a constitution near to that of the France of Louis XVI, intended to modernize the Poland and to reinforce it against the Russian empire. The king and the patriots, supported by the demonstrations in the streets of the capital, benefit from the small number of deputies present to make pass the text:
- the question of the king is regulated by a compromise: by special privilege the function is reserved for Stanislas Auguste ( vivente governed ) but it does not have the privilege of heredity. The government is consisted of the primacy of the Church and four ministers; in the deliberations, the way of the king is dominating. The king names the ministers, but the Diet can revoke them. It deliberates in the majority on its members and not by order. The Senate sees its decreased capacities. The diétines lose their legislative attributions. Nothing is known as on the fate of the peasants if not who they are “under the legal protection of the government”.
- the nobility divides on the Constitution. The conservatives the such hetman Branicki oppose and face it the young republicans, grouped around Adam Czartoryski and Ignace Potocki, while under the influence of the French revolution a campaign of feather with the ecclesiastics Stanislas Staszic, Hugo Kołłątaj and the middle-class man “Jacobin” Josef Pawlikowski starts. The watchword of the patriotic party is: “The king with the nation, the nation with the king”. This nation remains the nobility and the urban middle-class joined together in a political club, the Amis of the Constitution , and having an press agency, the national Gazette . Constitution projects economic and of statute for the Juifs are in addition elaborate.
- Equality in front of the tax.
See also: 1791 in France
- July 17th: Massacres of the Field-of-March.
- September 3rd: Proclamation of the Constitution.
- September 12th: Fastening of Avignon.
- September 13rd: Louis XVI approves the Constitution.
- September 28th: Promulgation of the Law on the emancipation of the Jewish in France.
- October 1st: Opening of the legislative Parliament.
- the Églises British and American methodists count 150.000 faithful. In Great Britain, the number of members, largely recruited on new urban environments, from 25.911 in 1767 passed to 72.476. It is thought that it is necessary to multiply by five or by ten the number of faithful sensitive to preaching methodist without entering a company.
Arts & cultures
- September 30th: The opera the Magic Flute , work maconnic of the Austrian type-setter Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, written in German is represented for the first time and is a considerable success. The December 5th, death of Mozart.
- Voyages of Haydn in Great Britain, 1791 - 1792 and 1794 - 1795 ( London symphonies ).
- the French architect and engineer Pierre Charles the Child designs the town of Washington, federal capital of the the United States.
Sciences and technology
- Nicolas Leblanc invents a proceeded making it possible to obtain Soude starting from sea water. With the collaboration of the chemist Michel Jean Dizé and the financial contribution of the duke of Orleans, it assembles the factory of production of soda of Saint-Denis.
Economy & Company
- Regulation of the country drudgery between 1791 and 1799 with the Denmark.
- the Roumanians constitute 60% of the population of Transylvania,
Births in 1791
- January 15th: Franz Grillparzer, Austrian writer
- January 21st: Padre Davide da Bergamo, type-setter and Italian organist
- March 9th: Nicolas Prosper Levasseur, singer of opera
- April 23rd: James Buchanan, future President of the United States
- April 26th: Theodore Géricault, French painter
- April 27th: Samuel Morse, invents the telegraph († April 2nd 1872)
- July 10th: Wolfred Nelson, future mayor of Montreal
- September 5th: Giacomo Meyerbeer, type-setter
- September 22nd: Michael Faraday, British physicist
- December 7th: Bernard Pierre Magnan, Marshal of France. († May 29th 1865).
- December 26th: Charles Babbage, British mathematician
Death in 1791
- January 24th: Etienne Maurice Falconet, sculptor (1716-1791).
- March 2nd: John Wesley, theologist, founder of the Méthodistes.
- April 2nd: Honore Gabriel Riqueti, count de Mirabeau.
- October 5th: Potemkine.
- December 5th: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, type-setter.
- Jacob Frank (1726 -1791), commercial Jewish Polish founder of a sect Jewish antitalmudic whose members accept the baptism, is polonisent and for some are anoblis.
Be-X-old: 1791 Map-bms: 1791 Simple: 1791 Zh-yue: 1791 年
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