This page relates to the year 1789 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 7th: First presidential election with the the United States; one month later, George Washington is indicated President of the Union.
- March 4th: Coming into effect of the American Constitution (thirteen years after the Declaration of independence). One of its provisions allows to the owners slaves to calculate the number of votes starting from the equation: 1 black = 3/5 of a white.
- April 6th: Proclamation of the election of Georges Washington, first president (fine in 1797).
- April 30th: Ceremony of nomination with New York of the first president of the United States, George Washington.
- July 10th: The British traveller Alexander Mackenzie discovers the river in Arctique which will bear its name.
- September 11th: Alexander Hamilton (1755 - 1804) is named secretary with the Treasury of 1789 with 1795. He proposes a series of laws favorable to richest and adopted by the Congress: installation of a Bank of the United States, law on the customs tariffs to come to assistance of the manufacturers, refunding of the titles of the national debt to their face value highest, tax laws authorizing the collection of taxes to allow the refunding of these titles.
- the Spanish captain Esteban Jose Martínez, built Strong San Miguel in Nootka Sound, on the Vancouver Island, it will be the only Spanish establishment in Canada.
- May 10th, Brazil: failure of the Conspiracy Mineira in the State of the Minas Gerais. Revolutionists carried out by the “ Tiradentes ” organize a popular rising to require the independence of the Brésil. This rising will fail, Tiradentes will be carried out, but became celebrates it martyr of Brazilian independence.
- October 16th: The count de Revillagigedo becomes viceroy of News-Spain (fine in 1794).
Oceania & the Pacific
- April 28th: Beginning of the mutiny of the Bounty led by Fletcher Christian.
- April: Epidemic of variola to Port Jackson in Australia. The governor Arthur Phillip captures two indigenous survivors of the epidemic, Bennelong and Colbee, to come into friendly contact with them. Bennelong will be taken along to Great Britain in 1793.
- the aboriginals are astonished by the attitude of the colonists, who scorn fresh fish to eat salted cod imported, refuse to eat Kangourou, import foxes of Great Britain to drive out them without the intention to eat them. They horrified by the brutality with which the White treat the ones the others with Port Jackson and by their contempt of the environment. Even if they are not interested in the trade, they quickly covet certain objects (steel knives and axes) and food products (tobacco, flour, the, sugar, alcohol), which will upset their traditional social structures. The aboriginals think first of all that its men with white skin are their ancestors come to visit them, but they quickly realize of the intentions of the invaders, who want to take their best grounds to them. The colonists do not include/understand their values and their complex social organization.
- Second war kaffir between colonists of South Africa and Bantou (fine in 1793).
- Beginning of the reign of Agonglo, king of Abomey (fine in 1797). It is unable to repress the disorders which burst in its country and to avoid the attacks directed by its neighbors. With its death anarchy reigns with the Dahomey during a score of years until the reign of Ghézo.
- Promulgation of codes of laws in Mongolia (1789 and 1815).
- In India, the chief Marathe Mahdaji Sindhia benefits from the confused situation to be made grant by the emperor Moghol the title of “large regent” ( wakil-i mutlaq ). It is in fact the holder of the capacity; he entrusts to the general Benoît de Boigne, Savoyard, the care to modernize and direct his army. This one demolishes successively several rajahs Rajputs, then marathes chiefs. Mahadji Sindhia dominates India of North then. He dies in 1795.
The Middle East & Arab World
- April 7th: Beginning of the Othoman sultanate of Sélim III (fine in 1807). It inaugurates reforms ( Tanzinat ) to try to save the Ottoman Empire.
- Muhammad Pasha becomes governor (wali) of Mosul (fine in 1806). Its government marks the apogee of the dynasty of the Djalîlî in Mosul.
- February 10th: Suppression of the Drudgery by Joseph II. Its death in 1790 will prevent the application of the measure. Project of Joseph II of creation of a payable tax of share by all the owners and that of a general land register to sit this tax. A royal decree orders the introduction in Hungary of the unit tax on the grounds as well peerage-books as country-women, imposing 12,22% of the incomes. The peasant who does not achieve any more drudgeries pays in more 17,25% of royalties to his lord owner under the repurchase of the drudgery.
- March 9th: Ludovico Manin becomes doge of Venice (fine in 1797).
- July 21st: Victoire of Souvorov and the prince of Cobourg on the Turks with Focşani.
- August 18th: Revolt with Liege. The prince-bishop of Liege is driven out by a coup d'etat of the middle-class, supported by the workers and the peasants. Feudality is abolished.
- August 24th: Russian Victoire on Sweden with the battles of Svensksund in the Golfe of Finland
- undecided naval Action enters the Sweden and the Russia meadows of Bornholm (admiral Greigh). Russian Victoire of the general Tchiganov and the prince of Nassau-Siegen on ground.
- Potemkine takes Bender, Akkerman and Kilia.
- September 18th: Russian Victoire on Sweden with the Combat of Nyslott in the Baltic.
- September 22nd: Russian Victoire on the Turks with the Battle of Rymnik (Râmnicu Sărat).
- 8 - October 9th: Catch of Belgrade by the Austrians of the marshal Laudon.
- October: Insurrection of patriots, caused by the religious policy, led by the lawyer Vonck, in Belgium.
- October 24th: The chief of the Belgian army, Van der Meersh, beats the Austrians with Turnhout. The Belgian Patriots proclaim the forfeiture of Joseph II and declare independence.
- November 10th: Cobourg occupies Bucharest.
- December 18th: The Austrians evacuate Brussels and the principal places.
- Memory of Catherine II of Russia to Joseph II on the division of the Ottoman Empire and the foundation of an empire of Dacie (Moldavie, Valachie, Bessarabia). The Bosnia and the Serbia would return to the Austria.
- In Spain, the minister Floridablanca attempts to remove any risk of revolutionary contagion: cord on the borders, censures increased by the Inquisition. The Cortes are dispersed.
- Anxious to take in hand the direction of the Foreign affairs, Gustave III of Sweden sets up a mode close to the absolutism by the Act of union and safety.
- January: The Diète four years decides the removal of the permanent Council and declares its mandate unlimited in time. It only controls, deliberating in the majority on the voices and not according to the orders. It makes disappear with the central government, the departments of the Police force and Justice, but maintains the commission of education. It decides an increase in the army, which is carried to 65 000 men, establishment of a tax on land, including on the ecclesiastical goods and the noble goods, which are taxed for the first time. This tax brings back nine million zlotys on sixteen discounted, the but double one the financial resources of the state compared to 1788. To manage the provinces, of the civil and military Joint Committees, elected by the diétines, are founded. A sharp feeling russophobe in the public opinion accompanies all these measurements.
- In September, the Diet designates a “delegation” to work with a Constitution. Ignace Potocki (1751 - 1809), large Master of Polish masonry and adversary of the Russia, holds the main role to with it.
- November: Formation of a union of the cities on the initiative of Jean Dekert, the mayor of Warsaw, joining together 141 royal cities.
- Census: the Poland account 8,8 million inhabitant, of which 750 000 noble, 50 000 clerks and 700 000 Jews. 53% of the population are catholic, 29% uniate, orthodoxe 3,5%, 10% Jewish, 1% Protestant woman. The peasants constitute more than 70% of the population.
- the Polish army counts 18 000hommes, including 8000 riders. It is based, as in France, on the enrôlement voluntary one and the venality of the ranks.
See also: 1789 in France
January 24th: Convocation of the General states.
- May 5th: Opening of the General states to Versailles.
- June 17th: The Tiers state proclaims National Assembly.
- June 20th: Oath of Jeu de Paume.
- June 23rd: royal Meeting.
- July 9th: Proclamation of the constituent Assembly.
- July 11th: Reference of Necker.
- July 14th: Storming of the Bastille.
- August 4th: Abolition of the privileges and the feudal system.
- August 26th: Declaration of the human rights and the citizen.
- 5 - October 6th: Revolt of the people of Paris.
- November 2nd: Nationalization of the goods of the catholic clergy.
- December 9th: Decree of the division of France in departments
- December 24th: The Protestants obtain the Established among.
- Closing and destruction of many convents in Bohemia.
Arts & culture
Girodet-Trioson obtains the Prix of Rome with Joseph recognized by his brothers .
Sciences and technology
See also: 1789 in science
- December 20th: First industrial spinning mill of Cotton American according to the Proceeded Arkwright introduced in New England by Samuel Slater.
Economy & Company
the Spain has 72 linerships.
- the king of Prussia reign on 5,7 million inhabitants.
- the cotton imports in Great Britain doubled since 1700.
- 70 000 tons of coffee enter in Europe, imported for half by the France (the remainder by the British, the Dutchmen and the Spaniards), which also imports 100 000 tons of sugar on 250 000 in Europe.
- Santo Domingo produced 86 000 tons of sugar per annum. It counts 465 000 slaves.
- the Great Britain carries out one the third of commercial tonnage Européen (1,08 million tons for 3,3 million tons). The France the day before the revolution is in the forefront European commercial in value with 45 million pound sterling. (35 million for Great Britain and 13 million for the Holland).
Births in 1789
- May 20th: Marcellin Champagnat, founder of the Marist brothers († 1840).
- June 24th: Silvio Pellico, Italian writer.
- June 29th: Carl Ludwig Blume, Dutch botanist († 1862).
- July 19th: John Martin, British painter.
- August 21st: Augustin Louis Cauchy, French mathematician.
- September 4th: Charles Gaudichaud-Bowsprit, French botanist († 1854)
- September 9th: William Cranch Jump, American astronomer
- September 15th: James Fenimore Cooper, American writer.
- November 21st: Cesare Balbo, politician and Italian writer
Death in 1789
- January 21st: Paul Henri Dietrich, baron d' Holbach.
- April 7th: Abdülhamid Ier, Othoman sultan (1774 -1789)
- May 5th: Giuseppe Baretti, 70 years, writer, scholar, Playwright, Polemist, Critical arts person, Lexicographer and translator Italy N. (° April 24th 1719).
- May 25th: Anders Dahl, Botanist Swedish (° 1751).
- June 4th: '' Louis '' Joseph Xavier François de France, dolphin of France, tuberculosis.
- July 15th: Jacques Duphly, type-setter, organist and harpsichordist French.
- December 3rd: Claude Joseph Vernet, painter French landscape designer (born with Avignon in 1714).
- December 23rd: Abbot of the Sword, author of the language of the deaf-mute ones.
Be-X-old: 1789 Map-bms: 1789 Simple: 1789 Zh-yue: 1789 年
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