This page relates to the year 1788 Gregorian Calendrier.
- May 3rd: Foundation of the Audiencia of Cuzco.
- June 21st: Coming into effect of the Constitution of the United States of America.
- Last nine States out of thirteen approve the Constitution in spring. The political community is divided into two parties, that of the republican-democrats (Madison, Jefferson, Monroe), which wants a republic decentralized, and that of the federalists (Washington, Hamilton, Adams), in favor of a federal capacity extremely.
- the Constitution serves the interests of the fortunate elite (3% of the population), but also made gestures in favor of the small holders (1/3 of the population), the workmen and craftsmen of the cities and the farmers to the modest incomes to make sure of supports broadest. This base forms moreover an effective rampart against the poor Indians, Blacks and White.
- July 11th, Brazil: Furtado de Mendonça is named governor of the Minas Gerais with the order of launching the derrama (tax required of the population which represents the difference between the real quinto and the 100 arrobas of gold due). The lifting of this tax causes the Conjuration Mineira in 1789.
- Bahia reached 50 000 inhabitants.
- February 19th: Creation of the Company of the friends of the Blacks by Brissot, for the abolition of slavery.
- August 22nd: The Britanniques establish a counter in Sierra Leone, in order to be used as asylum with the slaves.
- Creation by Joseph Banks of Association for Promoting the Discovery off the Interiors Shares off Africa , future Royal Geographical Society .
Oceania & the Pacific
- January 18th: The British captain Arthur Phillip, ordering the “'' First Fleet ''”, unloads in Australia with Botany Bay with 732 “ convicts ”, and 450 sailors or soldiers accompanied by their families, in order to establish a penal settlement.
- On the 733 first leaving under terrible conditions, it has there 431 condemned for “minor flights”, 44 robbers of sheep, 9 authors of large larcenies, and 31 which made a violence on a person. Half has less than 25 years. Forty-eight of them perish during 252 days of voyage (Scorbut). In Great Britain, 25 000 “criminals” are reproduced on a waiting list.
- January 26th:
- the penitentiary is transferred in the more favorable site from Port Jackson, which will become Sydney.
- the French explorer François de Galaup of Perugia reached Botany Bay in Australia, charged observing the intrigues of the British in New Wales of the South and with studying the possibilities of colonization. It takes again the sea later six weeks and dies in a shipwreck on the reefs of the Vanuatu.
- February 17th: Richard Howe discovers the deserted island Lord Howe.
- March 6th: British establishment in the island Norfolk.
- On arrival of the governor Phillip, the Aborigènes of Australia are of 300 000 with 400 000. They will be ten times fewer one century, driven back later towards the territories of North and the West. The first contacts between the colonists and the aboriginals occur badly. The massacres start early, certain indigenous habits (to strike the women with blood, to crush craniums of the soldiers taken in ambush) giving clear conscience to Europeans who judge “that it is not a question of human beings but of monkeys”.
Asia & Indian world
- February 13rd: Beginning with London of the lawsuit of Warren Hastings, general governor of British India between 1773 and 1785, in Great Britain, shown embezzlements. It leaves there discharged, but ruined (fine in 1795).
- Failure of a Chinese forwarding to the Tonkin.
- Large fire of Kyôto (Japan).
- the Gurkhas of the Nepal invade the Tibet.
- For economic reasons, the Gurkha of the Nepal enter in conflict with the Tibetans. Seriously threatened, the latter owe their safety only with the intervention of the armies of the Chinese emperor Qianlong which obliges, four years later, Gurkhas to sign peace. The Chinese benefit from it to tighten their control on the government Tibetan. The clergy Tibetan and the imperial government choose to close the country the abroads at the beginning of the 19th century.
- January 1st, the United Kingdom: the London Daily Universal Register becomes the Times , newspaper daily whose first page will be devoted a long time to classifieds.
- January 21st: Henri Benoît Stuart becomes the new applicant jacobite with the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.
- February 9th: The Austria joined the Russia in the Russo-Turkish war. Joseph II east demolishes in Serbia with the head as of its troops. The Banat of Temesvar east invades by the Turks.
- April 15th: Treaty of $the Hague enters the Great Britain and the United Provinces.
- June 20th: Abolition of the Serfdom to the Denmark (Reform of Bernstorff). The former tenants reach the property, and take part in the division of the communal ones. The feudal company evolves to a company of class based on the more or less great land possession.
- 28 - June 29th: Battle of the Dniepr. Souvorov beats the Turks with Kinburn and on the Rimnik.
- June: Occupation of the Moldavie by the Russians (end in 1792) who extend their protectorate on Moldavie and the Valachie.
- July 2nd: The forces of Gustave III of Sweden attack the Russia. Gustave III, to divert the opinion of the interior matters, carries out a war against Russia and the Denmark, during which the Swedish nobility betrays it (1788 - 1790).
- July 17th: Battle of Hogland. The brother of king de Suède, Charles, with the head of a powerful fleet, overcomes the Russians in the Golfe of Finland: the Swedish fleet tries to take Saint-Pétersbourg. It succeeds in dispersing the Russian fleet but cannot invest the city. In Finland, the Swedish army tramples. A plot of officers, encouraged by Catherine II of Russia, tries to tear off the creation of a Finnish nation separated from the Sweden.
- August 13rd: Treaty of Berlin enters the Prussia and the United Provinces.
- September 13rd: The Denmark invades the Sweden.
- December 6th: Souvorov and Potemkine takes Otchakov in Ukraine.
- December 14th: Beginning of the reign of Charles IV of Spain (fine in 1808). The minister Floridablanca is maintained with the businesses.
- September 17th: Battle of Karánsebes in the Banat, where the Austrian army fights itself.
- October 6th: In Poland, beginning of the Great Diet or four years Diet (end the May 29th 1792). A patriotic party emerges among noble the, hostile one with the tsarina, the king and the permanent Council. A program of national unit is elaborate. The most important tycoons (Ignace Potocki, Adam Czartoryski, Malakowski) adhere to it as well as part of the middle-class.
- the king George III of the United Kingdom undergoes its first attack of mental disease during the summer. From November, it is unable to control.
- Russian Protectorate on the Poland.
See also: 1788 in France
- 7 with the June 14th: Day of the Tiles.
- July 21st: Meeting of the state-generals of Dauphine the.
- July 5th - August 8th: decision to convene the General states taken by Loménie de Brienne.
- August 25th: recall of Necker.
- December 27th: doubly Third state.
Arts & cultures
Loves of Pâris and Helene table of Jacques-Louis David.
- Construction of the Door of Brandebourg to Berlin (fine in 1791).
- July-August: The Austrian type-setter Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composes in less than 7 weeks three symphonies (in E flat, in minor ground and Jupiter ).
Sciences & technology
- Analytical mechanics , of Lagrange.
- Nicolas Leblanc develops a process preparation of soda (Sodium carbonate).
- Beginning of the publication of the encyclopedic and methodical Table of the three reigns of nature .
Economy & Company
- Re-establishment of the balance of the exchanges in Spain. For the first time, more Spanish goods are exported towards the Spanish colonies than of foreign goods.
- the annual production of iron in Great Britain is of 60 000 tons.
- the Portugal account 460 factories.
- Freedom of the trade of the grains and the cattle to the Denmark.
- Foundation of the Brewery Cardinal with Freiburg, in Swiss.
Births in 1788
- February 22nd: Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher
- May 10th: Augustin Fresnel, French physicist
- August 2nd: Leopold Gmelin, German chemist († 1853).
Death in 1788
- February 17th: Maurice Quentin of the Tower, French painter.
- March 2nd: Solomon Gessner, Swiss poet of German expression (Zurich, 1730 -1788).
- April 16th: Buffon, naturalist, mathematician, biologist, cosmologist and author French (° 1707).
- May 8th: Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Italian entomologist of Austrian origin (° 1723).
- June 21st: Johann Georg Hamann, German writer (Königsberg, 1730 - Münster, 1788).
- August 2nd: Thomas Gainsborough, British painter .
- November 8th: Johann Karl Zeune, 52 years, German Philologist . (° October 29th 1736).
- December 6th: Nicole-Queen Lepaute, 65 years, astronomer and mathematician (° January 5th 1723)
- December 8th: The Baillif de Suffren, of the continuations of a duel.
- December 14th :
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Jean-François of Perugia, French navigator.
Be-X-old: 1788 Map-bms: 1788 Simple: 1788 Zh-yue: 1788 年
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