This page relates to the year 1786 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 24th: The Expédition of Perugia reaches the Chile.
- June 23rd: The Expédition of Perugia reaches the Alaska with the Holy Mont Elias, then discovers the “Port of the French” (today Baie Lituya).
- July 13rd: Catastrophe of the port of the French for the forwarding of Perugia.
- August 29th: Beginning of the Revolt of Shays, rising of the farmers in the west of the Massachusetts. They block the action of justice in the businesses of seizure of properties for debts. Daniel Shays, to the head of 700 armed farmers, enters to Springfield where the judges must suspend the audiences ( September). The general court of Boston writes then the Riot Act against the seditious assemblies and suspends the Habeas corpus. The movement is repressed by an army ordered by Benjamin Lincoln and financed by the traders of Boston. Shays must be exiled in the Vermont and his/her companions start to go. Insurrectionists are condemned to death. Shays will be amnestied in 1788.
- December 4th: Foundation of the Mission Santa Barbara in California.
- June 13rd: Creation of the Audiencia of Caracas.
- September 2nd: Hurricane with the Barbades.
- December 4th: Administrative reforms with the Mexico. The king Charles III of Spain names twelve intendants to control the News-Spain in the place of the alcalde S , mayores and corregidores .
- Tensions born of the social economic growth and the dissatisfaction with the middle-classes related to the reforms in Mexico.
- Academia Cientifica of Rio de Janeiro becomes the Sociedade Literaria (1786 - 1795). She is concerned with science and of technique, propagates the culture of the Indigo and the cochineal, introduced new industrial manufactoring processes and makes a criticism of colonization while taking as a starting point Raynal, Rousseau and Mably.
- April 9th: The Expédition of Perugia makes stopover with the Easter Island.
- the government of George III of the United Kingdom decides to establish a penal settlement in News-Wales of the South (Australia).
- March 12th: Aga Mohammad Shah establishes his capital with Teheran. The Dynastie Kadjar is opposed to the last Zand Lotf Ali Khan in Iran until in 1794.
- August 12th, Malaysia: The sultan of Kedah, which seeks of the assistance against the Siam ois, rents the island of Penang to the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies, which makes a free port of it.
- September 12th: Charles Cornwallis is named General governor of the Indies.
- September 17th, Japan: Ienari Tokugawa becomes Shogun (fine in 1837).
Large fire of Edo.
- Catholicism is interdict in Korea.
- China: Rebellion started by the sect of the “Eight Trigrams” with the Shandong (fine in).
- January: The duke of Caracciolo, viceroy of Sicily, is destined for Naples. Its successor the Prince de Caramanico continues his action. He calls upon many sicilian reformers and devotes himself to vast investigations into the economy of the island, makes create elementary schools, collects the opinions on the division of the domanial grounds. He convinces the Parliament to accept a new land register, limit the feudal rights and the hereditary rights, divides the fields in order to transform them into free properties and considers the concession of the grounds of Church in the form of long beams (99 years).
- January 26th: Léopold of Tuscany, influenced by the Jansenist Scipione de' Ricci, proposes to the bishops Toscane 57 “points ecclesiastical”, bases of a future reform (control of the clergy, reforms the regular ones, redistribution of their goods at the institutions of assistance and education).
- 18 - September 28th: Scipione de' Ricci holds the synod of Pistoia to answer the 57 questions of the large-duke of Tuscany. He supports that “the authority of the Church lies in the body of the pastors” that “the Prince… bishop of outside… gets the harmony of the Church”, that religious holidays are pretext “… with banquets, drinking bouts, plays…” a majority of preserving bishops repudiate the large duke who must be satisfied with minor reforms.
- August 2nd, United Provinces: Clashes with Utrecht, Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Purge magistrates orangists and the “tepid ones” by the Dutch patriots in the majority of the big cities (1786-be 1787). Guillaume V of Orange-Nassau is seized again thanks to the British money and takes again the control of the patriotic small towns of Hatten and Elburg in Gueldre. In answer, the States of Holland withdraw its military command to him on the provincial troops (September 22nd).
- August 17th: Died of Frederic II of Prussia to Potsdam and beginning of the reign of its nephew Frederic-Guillaume II of Prussia (fine in 1797).
- September 26th: Treaty Eden-Rayneval. Signature of a treaty of Trade and Navigation between the France and the Great Britain (Of the Bridge of Nemours). It opens the France with the British goods.
- November 30th: Léopold of Tuscany publishes a code of criminal procedure inspired of Beccaria which abolishes the Torture, the Capital punishment and the prison for debts.
- Publication of a civil code in Austria. It provides that the marriage can be celebrated only by the clergy but in the form of a simple civil contract, which causes the protest of the ecclesiastics.
- has Milan, the Concordat of 1757 is denounced: the clergy is subjected to the ordinary courts, the recruitment of the priests controlled by the government and the educational function of the Church competed with by the creation of elementary schools of State. At the same time the “Constitutions” conferred by Charles Quint in 1541, the Senate, the old institutions of Milan and the corporations are abolished. The policy of Joseph II encounters very strong local resistances. The nobility continues de facto to dominate the municipal capacities and, allied with the clergy, causes popular riots and emotions.
- Reykjavík, then populated of 302 inhabitants, receives a charter of commercial town of the Danish crown.
- fresh Years. Late and poor grape harvest (1786 and 1787). Raise prices of the wine.
- May 31st: Verdict of the Parliament of Paris in the Business of the collar of the queen. The cardinal of Rohan is discharged and the countess of the condemned Mound.
- June 21st: Visit Louis XVI with Cherbourg.
- August 20th: Administrative reforms and tax of Calonne inspired by that of Turgot. Creation of the territorial subsidy, payable tax on land by the nobility and the clergy, transformation of the Drudgery of the taillables by a tax silver, suppression of the interior customs, freedom of trade of the grains, creation of provincial and municipal assemblies elected by the vote censitaire without reference to order.
- November 29th: The king convenes the Assemblée of notable the for 1787.
- the interests of the accumulated debts absorb more than 50% of the budget. The public revenue reaches 475 million books, against 587 million expenditure.
- 47% of elimination of illiteracy in France (1786-1790). 27% of the women are taught reading and writing.
Art & culture
- May 1st: The Marriages of Figaro of Mozart cannot be represented that in Italian on injunction of the censure and the emperor Joseph II. The opera makes a triumph with the Burgtheater of Vienna.
- Goya is named painter of the Room.
Science & technology
- January 17th: observation in Paris of the Comet of Encke.
- June 4th: Elisabeth Thible and the first woman to be flown in Montgolfier to Lyon.
- First international congress of the mining extraction and the iron and steel industry with Sklené Teplice (Slovakia). The scientists discuss noble metal extraction there using mercury, according to the technique of the amalgamates proposed by Ignace Born.
Economy & company
- Mars: The first herds of sheep Spanish merinos arrive at the firm of Rambouillet.
- Abolition of the right of possession of the Mesta in Spain. The pastures can from now on be closed and cultivated.
- Pitt the Young person place the sinking fund of the national debt under the control of independent police chiefs.
- Publication of a Bank of the assignats in Russia.
- the fleet of Spanish war aligns 60 linerships.
- the fleet of French war aligns 76 linerships.
- the British fleet of war aligns 120 linerships.
- the fleet of Dutch war aligns 50 linerships.
- the Danish and Swedish fleets of war align each one 30 linerships in Baltique.
- the Russian fleet of war aligns 60 linerships in Baltique and the Mediterranean.
- the fleets of Naples, Venice, Genoa, Raguse and Malta occupy the theater of the operations in the Mediterranean.
Birth in 1786
- April 15th: Walerian Łukasiński, officer and activist Polish († January 27th 1868).
- April 19th: Felix-Louis de Narp, Brigadier general French. († 1844).
- June 20th: Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, French poetess († July 23rd 1859)
- August 31st: Eugene Chevreul, French chemist († 1889)
Death in 1786
- January 4th: Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher, with Berlin (1729 -1786).
- January 6th: Pierre Pepper, Agronomist and Botanist French (° 1719).
- May 21st: Carl Wilhelm Scheele, chemist.
- September 20th: Louis-Charles-Rene de Marbeuf, count of Marbeuf, marquis of Cargèse, governor of the Corsica . (° October 4th 1712).
- August 17th: Frederic II of Prussia, king of Prussia (° 1712)
- December 20th: Abbot Nicolas Thyrel de Boismont, member of the French Academy.
Be-X-old: 1786 Map-bms: 1786 Simple: 1786 Zh-yue: 1786 年
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