This page relates to the year 1785 Gregorian Calendrier.
- April 21st: The lieutenant-governor of the Quebec Henry Hamilton gives his agreement to an ordinance of the Legislative council establishing the lawsuits by jury in the businesses of trade and personal insults. The new law answers requests formulated by the British subjects of the colony. It modifies part of the French civil laws given into force by the Acte of Quebec. In the case of opposing lawsuit of the subjects born in Great Britain, Ireland and in the colonies and provinces of America, sworn will be selected exclusively among the old subjects; in the lawsuits between Canadians, all sworn will be Canadian; in the mixed lawsuits, “sworn will be composed of an equal number of each one, if it is thus required by it by one of the parts”.
- July 6th: the Congrès of the Confederation adopts the dollar like single currency of the the United States.
- the viceroy of the Brésil removes all textile manufactures of the Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, except that which manufactures coarse fabrics for the clothing of the slaves or the bags.
- Madagascar: Activity of the Pirate Zana-Malata (children mulattos), descendants of the slave traders and the pirates of the east coast (about 1785 - 1823). They organize forwardings of raid of slaves and plundering against the the Comoros, the island of Maffia and the Eastern coast of Africa. They can arm up to 500 dugouts and 18 000 warriors in only one forwarding.
- , Brest: Beginning of the voyages of Perugia in Asia, North America and Pacifique West (fine in 1788). The two ships of forwarding the Compass and the Astrolabe will be lost in the Southern Pacific. To date, the wreck of " Astrolabe" found forever.
See also: Forwarding of Perugia
- January 2nd: The Burmese army sent by the king Bodawphaya seizes the capital of the Arakan.
- January 19th: Naval Victoire Tây Sơn on the Siam with the Battle of Rach Gâm (today province Tiền Giang, with the Vietnam).
- February 18th: Beginning of the reign of Jafar Khan, Shah of Persia.
- After their success against the kingdom of Arakan, the Burmeses try, without success, to invade the Siam.
- the Khanat of Bukhara becomes an emirate.
- February 28th: Repression of the revolt of Horea in Transylvania. Its chiefs are put at death.
- May 8th: Infant of Portugal João wife Charlotte Joachime of Spain.
- June, United Provinces: Revolt of the patriots, gathered with Utrecht. The irregular forces conclude “the Act from association” in to claim a true republican constitution and the widening of the right of vote. The Regents try to resist the rise of the democracy, and make even advances with Guillaume V of Orange-Nassau, which radicalizes the revolutionary movement. The patriots organize themselves militarily when the stathouder made disperse the demonstrations in December.
- July 23rd: Frederic II of Prussia form the league of the Princes in Germany to counter the power of the Habsbourg.
- Joseph II proposes with the voter of Bavaria Charles Theodore to exchange the Bavaria against the Austrian Netherlands. Frederic II of Prussia brings together the German princes at once to form a league of princes (in German Fürstenbund ) in order to preserve the constitution of the Holy roman Empire. It ruins the project after the intervention of Vergennes.
- September 2nd: Abolition of serfdom in Hungary and Transylvania.
- September 15th: The Stadhouder Guillaume V of Orange-Nassau, private of the command of the garrison of $the Hague, is folded up in Gueldre.
- November 8th: the treaty of Fontainebleau confirms the closing of the the Scheldt at the conclusion of the war of the pot .
- Abandonment of the places of the Barrier by the United Provinces.
- frontier Agreements between the Spain and the France.
- Joseph II removes the administration of the comitats in Hungary to substitute ten districts of equal importance to him, plus three for the Transylvania. Royal police chiefs named by the emperor replace the elected prefects.
- In Sicily, the duke of Caracciolo reduces the sphere of activity of the feudal justice, which can neither judge any more, nor to imprison, and gives to the peasants a right of recourse near a court for any tax abuse or encroachment on the communal ones. The court is submerged complaints. A municipal reform obliges the noble ones to share the administration with civils servant of the State and the elected representatives of the taxpayers. The capacity baronnial resists but is really started.
- Catherine II of Russia reinforces the capacity of the cities and the nobility.
- April 28th: The privileges are codified by the Charter of the Nobility: exempted taxes, released of any obligation towards the State, the noble ones have from now on an absolute capacity on their peasants, subjected, them, with the reign of most total arbitrary since they are found private of any recourse in front of the imperial administration.
- Publication of the charter of the Townsmen, divided into six classes (owners, merchants, craftsmen, craftsmen working on their account, liberal professions, foreigners). They elect a Douma municipal, made up of six advised municipal and a mayor.
- manpower of the Russian army are of 500 000 men of which 230 000 of regular troops.
- 9% the noble ones, 3% of middle-class man, 50% serfs.
- June 3rd: Reorganization of the Company of the Indies.
- August 15th: The Cardinal of Rohan is stopped in Paris. The Comtesse of the Mound will be stopped a few days later.
- Business of the collar: swindlers manage to seize a collar of 2 million books by using the name of Rohan and the queen. The Parlement of Paris recognizes the innocence of the queen. Rohan is exiled. The opinion is moved by the sum and the atmosphere of corruption and scandals at the court.
- September 1st: Napoleon Bonaparte is named lieutenant as an artillery second after a training course with the military royal École of Paris.
- October 30th: Napoleon Bonaparte is affected with Valence, with the regiment of Fère, which belongs to the royal Body of Artillerie.
- September - October: exceptional Grape harvest.
- November 6th: Gabriel Cortois de Pressigny is named bishop of Saint-Malo. It will remain it until its resignation the September 19th 1801.
- Joseph II prohibits the processions and the pilgrimages in its States.
- the methodism of John Wesley gathers 70 000 faithful divided into 360 vaults, bound in a very hierarchical and completely subjected organization.
Art & culture
- January 1st: The British journalist John Walter publishes the first number of the London Daily Universal Register ( The Times ).
- January 27th: Foundation of the University of Georgia.
- August 28th: Fleury Mesplet founds the bilingual newspaper The Montreal Gazette/La Gazette of Montreal.
Decree of Joseph II restricting the creation of maconnic Cabins in the empire.
- Foundation of the University of New Brunswick.
- March 10th: creation of the Concerto for piano n° 21 of Mozart in Burgtheater of Vienna.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composes the Marriages of Figaro.
- Parisian Symphonies of Haydn (1785 - 1786).
- the morning Walk , fabric of Thomas Gainsborough.
- Thomas Jefferson takes as a starting point the square Maison of Nimes to draw the plans of the State Capitol Building with Richmond (Virginia), built between 1785 and 1789.
- Claude Nicolas Ledoux builds “propylées”, or “Mur of the Farmers general”, four checkpoints of the granting of Paris, of neo-classic style (1785-1789).
- Bust of Benjamin Franklin of Houdon.
Science & technology
- January 7th: The French aeronaut Jean-Pierre François Blanchard carries out the first crossing of the Manche of Calais to Dover in balloon.
- February 28th March 1st: Lavoisier and Meusnier carries out the decomposition and the synthesis of the Eau.
- June 15th: First plane crash: the aéromontgolfière of Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and Pierre Romain is crushed close to Boulogne-sur-Mer at the time of an attempt of crossing of the Manche.
- the British engineer Edmund Cartwright builds a weaving loom mechanical pulled by the vapor.
- the mechanic and physicist Charles Augustin of Coulomb establishes the law on the electromagnetism which bears its name. It produces an instrument of control “the electric balance with torsion” which makes it possible to carry out measurements which check the law of attraction and repulsion of the electric charges (Loi of Coulomb).
- James Hutton off presents his theory of the Uniformitarisme to the Royal Society Edinburgh .
Economy & company
Beginning of economic depression and financial in France (1785 - 1786).
- a royal edict separates the letter post from that of the relays of station and transport in France.
- Ignace Wendel founds the forging mills of the Creusot with the technical assistance of William Wilkinson. He creates a factory joining together a coking plant, blast furnaces, power hammers driven by the vapor.
- Dietrich has six modern iron and steel plants in Alsace with blast furnaces, forging mills and rolling mills.
- the British trade will double of 1785 with 1800, passing in value from 35 to 70 million pounds sterling.
- Louis XVI sign the law as what the Mouchoir S must be Carré S.
- Vienna account 213 000 inhabitants.
- Census in Hungary: on 11 379 communes, 3 668 are populated of Hungarian, 2 762 the Slovak ones, 1849 of Croats, 1 029 of Roumanians, 890 of Germans, 702 of ruthenes, 453 of It and 18 the Serb ones. Many communes comprise several nationalities. Hungary counts 75 000 Jews.
Births in 1785
- January 4th: Jacob Grimm, storyteller and German linguist.
- January 23rd: Carl Adolph Agardh, Botanist, mathematician, economist and politician Swedish († 1859).
- February 10th: Claude Louis Marie Henri Navier, French engineer theorist of the Mechanical of the fluids († August 21st 1835)
- March 22nd: Adam Sedgwick, British geologist .
- March 27th: Louis Charles of France, duke of Normandy then dolphin of France (Louis XVII).
- April 21st: Charles de Flahaut, diplomatic French.
- April 26th: Jean-Jacques Audubon, naturalist
Death in 1785
- January 3rd: Baldassare Galuppi, Venetian musician (1706 -1785).
- April 2nd: Gabriel Bonnot de Mably, moralist, historian and economist French (Grenoble, 1709 - Paris, 1785).
- May 8th:
- Etienne Francois, duke of Choiseul, with Paris (1719 -1785).
- Pietro Longhi, Venetian painter (1702 -1785).
- June 15th: Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, French balloon pilot.
- August 31st: Pietro Chiari, 72 years, dramatic author, Novelist and Librettist Italy N. (° December 25th 1712).
- October 15th: Antoine-Joseph of Laurents, bishop of Saint-Malo of 1767 at 1785.
- December 29th: Johan Hermann Wessel, writer (1742 -1785), organizer of the Norwegian Circle of Copenhagen.
- Khwâja Mîr Dart, poet Urdu Soufi of language , in India.
Be-X-old: 1785 Map-bms: 1785 Simple: 1785 Zh-yue: 1785 年
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