This page relates to the year 1783 Gregorian Calendrier.
- September 3rd: The Gambia becomes Britannique possession. France recovers its counters on the coasts of the Senegal.
- Beginning of the reign of Rwebishengye, omugabe (king) of the Ankole, in the south of the current Uganda (end in 1811).
Great famine of Tenmei in all the country, more particularly in the rural regions of the North-East, the island of Kyushu and that of Shikoku (fine in 1788); Nearly a million people would have died about it and the cases of cannibalism multiply. Country risings. Hordes of famished flee the campaigns to try to survive in the cities.
Matsudaira Sadanobu (1758-1829), main actor of the government, orders that one massively sends the beggars (provided that they are innocent of any crime) in exile on the island of Sado, in the Mer of Japan. Other camps of stays ( yoseba ) will be installed in other places. The itinerants are officially gathered in these camps of rehabilitation by work to prepare their return in the company. It appears quickly that the exile with Sado cost in fact to a judgment with the bagne, then with death.
- June 20th: Undecided battle between the fleets Frenchwoman and British and in the sea with the Battle of Gondelour.
- September 3rd: The treated of Versailles puts an end to the hostilities between France and Great Britain in India. Restitution of the French establishments of India. In spite of the loss of its French allies, Tippoo-Sahib takes the offensive and conquers Mangalore.
- the governor of the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies Warren Hastings sends one second mission to the Tibet led by the captain Samuel Turner, at the time of the recognition of the Panchen-lama.
The United States
- February 3rd: The Spain recognizes the Indépendance of the United States of America.
- February 4th: The the United Kingdom states to want to cease the hostilities with the the United States.
- March 10th: American naval Victoire on Great Britain off Florida.
- April 15th: Ratification of the preliminaries of peace.
- September 3rd:
- the treated of Paris puts a term at the Guerre of independence of the United States of America. It is signed between the representatives of the thirteen American colonies and the representatives British. The Big lakes form the northern border, the the Mississippi the Western border. The British give up the valley of the Ohio.
- Treated of Versailles. The Great Britain restores with the Spain Minorque and the Florida, but guard Gibraltar. The France recovers its counters in India and with the Senegal moreover the Great Britain yields to him some islands with the the Antilles.
- October 19th: the Great Britain recognizes the Indépendance of the United States of America.
- November 25th: The last British troops leave New York.
- Expulsion of 100 000 Loyal supporters, faithful to the Great Britain during the war of independence and confiscation of their goods. They are established in majority with the Canada but also with the the Antilles and in Great Britain. The British Parliament vote 16 million pounds sterling of credit to help the refugees. The States on sale put the confiscated goods. As the loyal supporters are often of great landowners, even owners of colony (PEN in Pennsylvania or the Baltimore with the Maryland), the transfer of property towards the States relates to tens of thousands of hectares. The redistribution provides a double opportunity to the revolutionary chiefs: to grow rich, they and their friends, and to distribute pieces to the small farmers in order to make sure of their supports broadest with the new mode.
Mutiny in the army of Pennsylvania. Eighty soldiers claiming their balance make irruption at the general headquarter of the Congrès to Philadelphia and oblige the members of them to take refuge with Princeton.
Between 1783 and 1787, the Congrès does not succeed in making recognize its authority on the various States. It financed the war and contracted considerable debts, and without means of pressure on the States, no means has of refunding them. The States have variable fiscal policies and few re-entries. The majority issue tickets. This inflation-paper and the absence of a single currency creates a difficult economic situation. The various States have variable customs policies.
population of the federal republic east of three million inhabitants divided on 2 million square kilometers.
- Surge of loyal supporters to the Canada, driven out old American colonies. They are established in Nova Scotia (30 000 in 1783,5000 of 1784 to 1786) or in the valley of the the St. Lawrence and the area of the Big lakes (20 000).
Reorganization of the Company of the North-West by the British Simon McTavish and Joseph Frobisher.
- Foundation of Audiencia of Buenos Aires.
- February 5th: A Earthquake made 50 000 victims in Calabria in Italy. The Parliament of Deux-Siciles makes a gift of 400 000 ecus for the disaster victims of Metz-native, which is distributed in favor of 70 families according to the old system, which causes the opposition of the duke of Caracciolo.
- March 28th: Proclamation of Catherine II of Russia on the annexation of the the Crimea, prepared by Potemkine which receives the title of Prince de Tauride.
- April 8th: The khan of the Crimea Şahin Giray calls the Russians with the assistance. The Russia appendix unilaterally the the Crimea after three centuries of administration Othoman E, and of the German peasants are established there. Construction of the fortress of Sébastopol.
- June 8th: The eruption of the Lakagigar, in Iceland causes death by the hunger of 9 000 people and causes serious climatic disturbances in Europe.
- June: Interview of Gustave III of Sweden and Catherine II of Russia to Fredrikshamm.
- July 24th: Treaty of Georgievsk. The Russia takes the control of the foreign affairs of the kingdom géorgien of Karthlie and Kakhéthie thanks to an agreement of protectorate.
- September 3rd: treaty of Versailles. The Spain recovers the Florida and Minorque in pledge of its participation in the Guerre of independence of the United States of America. Gibraltar, besieged for two years, has remained British. The maritime and colonial expansion of Great Britain is stopped (1783 - 1830).
Joseph II wants to take again the hostilities to the Turks and is combined with Catherine II of Russia. The empress initiates a policy of penetration and of colonization of the territories Turkish and is based on a policy of protections of orthodoxe subjected to the Turkish administration. The Russians infiltrate in Georgia.
- February: Coalition Fox - North.
- April 2nd: William Cavendish-Bentinck becomes Lord of the treasury and chief of the ministry known as of the coalition Fox - North.
- November 17th: the Parliament votes a judgment considering the influence which the sovereign in the parliamentary vote like “a great crime holds”. William Pitt the Young person and Georges Nugent-Temple are in the obligation to resign.
- December 17th: George III of the United Kingdom dissolves the Coalition Fox - Frederick NorthNorth.
- December 18th: Beginning of the first ministry tory of William Pitt the Young person, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the 24 years age (end in 1801). It implements vast reforms.
- the catholics receive the right to vote in Ireland. The Protestant militia of Ulster make pressure so that they do not obtain eligibility.
- the budget of the State is of 16% of the rough national product.
- the British fleet of war has 174 ship of the lines and 294 auxiliary ships.
- the British Quakers found an association abolitionist.
States of Habsbourg
- Code of Joseph II: civil wedding, principle of the legal equality.
- the commission of education and censure sees its action extended to all Austrian monarchy. The system allows the elimination of illiteracy of the masses, but appears catastrophic for the universities.
- Reform of teaching in monarchy habsbourgeoise: establishment of elementary classes, secondary gymnasia and universities with broader vocation. Teaching is exempted in German.
- Decree imposing the creation of an elementary school per village in Hungary, with at least a teacher.
- the privilege of Ban of mill is removed in the Habsbourgeois states.
“systematic Regularization of the statute of the Jewish ” in Hungary: they profit from the access to the cities, of the exercise of industry, the admission in the Christian schools without carrying distinctive signs.
March 29th: Resignation of Jolly de Fleury. It is replaced with the Finances by Lefèvre d' Ormesson.
- November 1st: Fall of Henri d' Ormesson.
- November 3rd: Calonne becomes Minister for Finance (fine in 1787). To start again confidence, it practices a policy of public expenditure (channels, town planning, stock exchange speculation) which places the country, ruined by the American war, in a catastrophic situation.
- December 7th: Dissolution of the monastic community of the Abbey St Martin of Canigou. built in the mountain, on the slopes of the Canigou, at the beginning of the 11th century.
- 85% of the recruits of the army results from popular environments (2/3 the rural ones, 1/3 of townsmen).
- the expenditure caused by engagement against Great Britain in the war of American independence worsens the economic crisis (the war cost 1,194 billion books the Treasury since 1777, financed largely by the credit).
Arts & cultures
- Creation of schools of teachers on the Austrian model in Russia, under the influence of the Austrian pedagog Jankovic de Mïrrevo.
Sciences and technology
- May 7th: Peter Onions develops the proceeded of puddling of the cast iron.
- June 4th: Demonstration in the particular States of Vivarais of a balloon to uninhabited hot air developped at the point by the Brothers Montgolfier.
- August 27th: Demonstration with Paris of a balloon inflated with hydrogen developped at the point by the physicist Jacques Charles
- September 19th: Flight of a Montgolfière (hot air) with Versailles with animals (a sheep, a cock and a duck) because the king had not allowed that men settle in the nacelle.
- November 21st: Joseph and Etienne Montgolfier carries out the first air rise of a Montgolfière (inflated with the hot air) controlled by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent Marquis d' Arlandes.
- February 1st: The physicist French Jacques Charles and Marie-Christmas Robert flies away in the first balloon inflated with hydrogen.
- Discovered Tungsten by Jose Elhuyar and Fausto Elhuyar.
- Lavoisier makes a success of the analysis then the synthesis of the Eau.
- the Academy of Rouen crown the report of Jean-Paul Marat on medical electricity.
Economy & company
- Spain: Rehabilitation of the scorned professions because formerly exerted by the Jews: tanner, shoe-maker, blacksmith, tailor…
- Italy: In Agro Romano, 113 families have 61% of the ground and 67 religious orders 37%.
Births in 1783
- January 23rd: Henri Beyle, known as Stendhal, novelist French († 1842)
- February 16th: Jean-Baptiste d' Omalius d' Halloy, geologist, with Liege.
- June 8th: Benjamin Collins Brodie, Physiologist and British Surgery N .
- July 24th: Simón Bolívar born with Caracas with the Venezuela. It is the future “El Libertador” of the independence of the Spanish colonies of South America († 1830)
- November 16th: Curro Guillén (Francisco Herrera Rodríguez), Spanish Matador († May 21st 1820).
Death in 1783
- April 16th: Saint Benoit Joseph Labre, penitent French, in Rome (1748-1783).
- April 24th: Grigori Orlov .
- September 6th: Carlo Antonio Bertinazzi, known as Carlin , 72 years, actor and playwright Italy N. (° December 2nd 1710).
- September 18th: Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician .
- September 27th: Etienne Bézout, French mathematician.
- October 29th: Jean the Round of Alembert, mathematician and philosopher French.
- December 20th: Antonio Soler, Spanish musician (1729 -1783).
- March 2nd: Francisco Salzillo, sculptor Spanish baroque (1707 -1783)
Be-X-old: 1783 Map-bms: 1783 Simple: 1783 Zh-yue: 1783 年
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