This page relates to the year 1778 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 11th: Treated of Pardo. The Portugal yields the Guinea Equatoriale to the Spain.
- November 6th: The governor of the Cape Joachim van Plettenberg fixes the border at the Great Fish River.
- Laos: After having subjected the Champassak, the Siam imposes its suzerainty on the kingdom of Luang Prabang and invades the kingdom of Vientiane.
Oceania & the Pacific
- January 18th: James Cook discovers some of the islands Sandwich, today islands of Hawaii, and the statement carries out some.
- James Cook reaches the coast of the continent of North America to broad of current the Oregon and in vain seeks the Passage of the North-West. It however skirts the coast until in Alaska, engages in what is called today the strait of Cook, then carries on its road towards north, goes up until the Bering Strait which it crosses before being constrained to make half-turn vis-a-vis the ice-barrier of the icecap. It then gives the course towards the Sandwich islands, where it is constrained to winter. The relationship with Hawaiiens is degraded little by little: victim of the flight of a launch, Cook wants to recover its good and he is stabbed during a short confrontation with the inhabitants of the island (February 14th 1779).
- November 26th: James Cook discovers Maui.
1778 is also the year of birth of surfing has Hawaii. This sport will become popular that in the years 50, thanks to the cinema and with the music (that of the beach Boys).
- the Chile becomes general harbor office of the Spanish empire .
- February 6th: Treaty of alliance defensive and Franco-American commercial treaty concluded by Franklin with Paris.
- March 20th: Recognition by France of the independence of the Thirteen American Colonies.
- June 19th: The army of George Washington leaves Valley Forge (Pennsylvania).
- June 28th: American Victoire with the Battle of Monmouth.
- June: Frederick Haldimand is named governor of the province of Quebec to replace Guy Carleton.
- July 3rd: British Victoire in Wyoming Valley, close to Wilkes-Bars in Pennsylvania. Massacre of 178 insurgent.
- July 10th: entry in war of the France and the Holland at the sides of the Insurgent S American. France sending of the volunteers of Fayette to support the insurrectionists.
- September 17th: Treaty enters the Americans and the Delaware to Fort Pitt.
- October 24th: Raid of Carleton
- October 28th, Quebec: publication of a proclamation by the French admiral Charles-Henri, count d' Estaing, in whom he proposes to the “French of America” to be combined with the the United States. Distributed clandestinely and posted with the door of some churches, the proclamation causes the anger of the new Haldimand governor.
- the explorer Peter Pond crosses the “ Methye Portage ” or “ bearing of the Loach ” and reached the Lac Athabasca. It opens with the pedlars Compagnie the North-West the way of the basin of the Mackenzie, Big lake of the Slaves, river of peace, the higher course of the Athabaska and Petit Lake of the Slaves.
- the navigator James Cook, in the search of a north-western passage, goes up the Western coast of Americas until in Alaska and crosses the Bering Strait.
- June 6th: The province of the Banat of Temesvár dissolved, then is reincorporated by Joseph II with Hungarian monarchy (April 23rd 1779). Serfdom is introduced and the country condition worsens.
- June 17th: Foundation of Kherson by Grigori Potemkine.
- July 3rd: The Prussia declares the war with the Austria: it is the beginning of the War of succession of Bavaria (fine in 1779) with died of Max-Joseph, died without children (1777). To grant the infeodation of the Bavaria to the Elector Palatine Charles Theodore, Joseph II appendix Landshut and Straubing, in Low-Bavaria, against the will of his/her mother Marie-Therese and Frederic II of Prussia, which starts a diplomatic crisis. Prussia invades the Bohemia in July ( war of the potatoes ). Joseph II must give up his ambitions.
- July 27th: Combat of Ushant: the French fleet of the Count d' Orvilliers force the British cruising of the admiral Keppel to break the combat.
- September 7th: An agreement of rendering of Austria is signed in Hamburg by Andreas Brodschön (Prussia) and Mathieu Lassalle (Austria).
- Spain: Creation of the mayors of districts, function which combines the benevolence in favor of the needy ones and prevention of the delinquency.
- Catholics relief acts ( Papists Act ) in the United Kingdom, which causes movement of hostilities to the cries of “ No popery ” (1779).
- hot and dry Years (1778 - 1785). Early grape harvest. Wine crisis of overproduction and lowers prices (1778 - 1781).
- February 6th: Commercial treaty enters France and the futures the United States.
- March 30th: Voltaire goes back to Paris some time before its death, which will occur the May 30th.
- July 12th: Creation of the assembly of Berry to Bourges
- frontier Agreements with the electorate of Trier.
- Abolition of the competence of recording of the ordinances of the Parliaments.
- Calonne is named intendant in Flanders (fine in 1783).
- Creation of the military divisions.
- the Protestants are accepted with the library of Vienna.
- Creation of a Jewish school with Berlin by Naphtali Herz Wessely (education Haskala, influenced by the Lights ).
- Investigation into the monasteries in Tuscan with an aim of removing the least important. The the Holy Office east abolishes.
- July 20th: Legal settlement between the Portugal and the the Vatican. Reorganization of the censure with the agreement of Rome which delegates its power at a “and censure board of examiners of the books”. The intendant of police force continues the books and the authors who “turn into ridiculous and speak with contempt about our holy religion and the supreme capacity to which we have happiness to be subordinates”.
Arts & cultures
- January 25th: Roland , opera of Niccolo Puccini which transforms it into champion of the anti-gluckistes.
- August 3rd: Opening of the opera of La Scala to Milan with Europa riconosciuta of Antonio Salieri.
- November 20th: False Appearances or the jealous Lover , Op3era Comique of Gretry created in Versailles.
- December 27th: the scuola de' gelosi , drama of Antonio Salieri with Venice.
Sciences and technology
- the Austrian doctor Franz Anton Mesmer opens a cabinet of treatment of the patients by the magnetism.
- Publication of Research and considerations on the population of France of Jean-Baptiste Moheau, regarded as one of the pioneers of the Demography, in fact with character populationnist.
- Discovered Molybdenum by Carl Wilhelm Scheele.
- French Flora , in three volumes, of Lamarck.
- the count of Buffon adopts the idea of the evolution of the species in its work the Times of nature .
Economy & company
- Last nine ports of the Iberian peninsula can take part in the commercial exchanges.
- the Spanish empire opens with the international business.
Births in 1778
- February 4th: Augustin Pyrame de Candolle, Swiss botanist († 1841).
- February 14th: Fernando Sor, Spanish type-setter.
- February 25th: Jose de San Martín, libertador of America.
- March 15th: Pauline Fourès known as " Bellilote" , that Bonaparte will meet in Egypt in 1798.
- September 20th: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, exploring Russian of the the Antarctic († January 13rd 1852)
- September 21st: Carl Ludwig Koch German Naturalist († 1857).
- October 8th: Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen, archbishop of Paris.
- November 13rd: Charles Joseph Auriol, Swiss painter. († May 25th 1834).
- December 6th: Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac, physicist and Chemist French († May 9th 1850)
Death in 1778
- January 10th: Carl von Linné, Swedish naturalist (° May 23rd 1707)
- April 25th: James Relly, preacher unitarist.
- March 27th: Adam the Young person, French sculptor (1705 -1778).
- May 20th: Charles de Géer, biologist and politician Swedish
- May 30th: Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) writer, philosopher, poet and historian French
- July 2nd: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, writer, Philosopher, French
- November 9th: Giovanni Battista Piranesi, known as Piranèse , draftsman, engraver and Italian architect (1720-1778). It engraved the Antiquités of Rome and the Vues of Rome and introduced with Rome the Egyptian fashion.
- November 20th: Francesco Cetti, priest Jesuit, Zoologist and Mathematician Italy N (° August 9th 1726).
Be-X-old: 1778 Map-bms: 1778 Simple: 1778 Zh-yue: 1778 年
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