This page relates to the year 1776 Gregorian Calendrier.
- With the Fouta-Toro, the marabouts directed by Thierno Souleymane Baal drive out the king Satigi animist of the dynasty denyanké. It is what is called the Révolution torodo. Shortly after Thierno Souleymane Baal dies and one of its principal assistants Abdoul Kader Kane will become the first Almamy of Fouta-Toro which proclaims Islam religion of State and creates a theocratic State which will remain independent until in 1881. The mode almamal will be particularized by the fact that the load of Almamy was not hereditary. Abdoul Kader Kane was chosen by the whole of the population. Thus this new mode succeeding that of denyanké tried to put an end to arbitrary absolute monarchy while being based on the principles of the Islam which it proposed. New institutions were created and the marked principles of equality. Breadth mode almamal wanted to put an end to the castes and slavery. That lasted until the death of Abdoul Kader Kane in 1807 assassinated by high-ranking dignitaries of Fouta. Until the end of the Kingdom in 1881 they were these high-ranking dignitaries, the jagoordo which held really the capacity. Almamy following will not be named any more by the whole of the population but by these jagoordo, chiefs of the five big families. The social stratification will perdura in other forms. The revolution torodo will thus not have achieved its major goals. Feudality torodo replaced that of denyankobé.
- July 12th, Plymouth: Beginning of the third voyage of the British of Cook in the Peaceful , an aim of discovering the passage of the North-West (fine in 1779). During the first part of this forwarding, it furrows the medium of the Pacific again. It reaches the 71° parallel north and observes that the passage is blocked by the ices.
- December 25th: Recognition of the islands Kerguelen by James Cook.
- January 10th: Thomas Paine publishes a lampoon, Common Sense , where it invites his fellow-citizens of the Thirteen British colonies in North America to be linked in a great released nation of the constraints and monarchy. It is sold with 120 000 specimens in one year.
- January 15th: Frederic II of Hesse-Cassel rents troops in Great Britain. 30 000 German soldiers are rented by their princes with the Britanniques to fight American independence.
- February 27th: Victoire of the patriots to the Battle of Moore' S Creek Bridge.
- March 17th: The British evacuate Boston. End of the Head office of Boston.
- March 28th: Foundation of the Presidio of San Francisco in California.
- April 29th: Failure of an American delegation with Montreal, come to negotiate an alliance against the British.
- May 6th: On arrival of three British ships with Montreal, the Americans raise the camp
- June 1st: Arrival with the Canada of 4 300 German mercenaries (of Brunswick and Hanau).
- June 8th: Battle of Three-Rivers (Quebec), opposing the insurrectionists of the Thirteen colonies to the troops of the king of Great Britain. The Americans fold up themselves, by the valley of the Rivière Richelieu, behind the position of Ticonderoga.
- June 12th: the Bill off Rights , first declaration of the human rights in Virginia, written by George Mason, is adopted by the Convention of Virginia.
- June 29th: Foundation of the town of San Francisco by two Pères franciscains come from the close Mexico, who celebrates the mass at the bottom of a splendid bay of the Californian coast.
- July 4th: Declaration of independence of the United States of America.
- July 8th: Riots against the conscription with Boston.
- August 27th: The Britanniques are victorious with the Bataille of Brooklyn.
- September: The insurgents lose New York.
- September 16th: The Britanniques unload in Kip' S Bay, and in the days which follow and gain the battles the Tops of Harlem (Morningside Heights).
- September 21st: A fire destroys the quarter of New York.
- October 9th: Foundation of San Francisco: after the construction of a fort the September 17th, takes place the dedication of the lately founded mission with Saint François d' Assise ( San Francisco de Asis ). The first name of San Francisco was “Yerba Buena” (" Good Herbe"). The Franciscains found 21 missions to convert the Indians.
- 11 - October 13rd: British Victoire with the Battle of the island of Valcourt on the Lake Champlain.
- October 28th: Battle of White Lime pits
- November 16th: The Britanniques take the fort of Washington (Washington Heights), which ensures to them the control of New York.
- December 7th: With Paris, the marquis of Fayette offers his services of soldier to the continental Congrès (Silas Deane).
- December 18th: Ratification of the constitution of North Carolina.
- December 25th: George Washington crosses the Delaware to Christmas.
- December 26th: British defeat with Trenton (Delaware).
- December 31st: The revolutionists are driven back with Quebec. Loyal supporters arrive at the Canada and are installed on grounds confiscated in the “Canayens”. It will create in 1784 the New Brunswick.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
the underprivileged populations of the States of the South do not adopt the Revolution spontaneously and the Delaware, the Maryland, both Caroline S, the Georgia and to a lesser extent the Virginia are plunged in a State of war civil which lasts all the war. Riots burst with the Maryland against the leading families rejoined with the Revolution but suspected of storing the goods of first need. The authorities of the Maryland make concessions by more heavily imposing the ground and the possession of slaves and by authorizing the payment of the debts in paper money. In the Carolines and the Georgia, “vast areas are delivered to themselves” and the populations refuse to take part in the war.
- Of new constitutions is elaborate in all the States of 1776 with 1780. The vote censitaire is softened in certain State, but becomes more strict in the Massachusetts. Only the Pennsylvania abolishes it completely. The new declarations of the rights comprise restrictive amendments.
- During the electoral campaign for the election of a convention charged to work out a constitution for the Pennsylvania, a committee of soldiers invites the voters to be opposed to the “interests exaggeratedly rich individuals”.
- the Quebec pedlars cross the confluence of both Saskatchewan.
- Thomas Frobisher reaches by the river Churchill the lake of the island to the Stick with the threshold of the basin of the Athabaska.
- January 2nd: The Spanish found the town of Guatemala.
- : Creation of the Viceroyalty of Río of Plata in South America. Buenos Aires, capital.
- the population of the Brésil reaches 1,5 million inhabitants including 24% of white, 24% mulattos, 52% of blacks. The wild Indians are perhaps 800 000 for all Brazil.
- May 1st: Adam Weishaupt founds the It Bavaria.
- October 7th: The future Paul Ier of Russia wife Sophie-Dorothée of Wurtemberg.
- October: To Naples, the minister Bernardo Tanucci, entered in conflict with the queen Marie Caroline after her attacks against freemasonry, capacity is returned.
- November 14th: In Spain, Pablo de Olavide is shown by the Inquisition to have held of the matter scandalous against the faith and morals and had books prohibited. He is condemned to eight years of reclusion in a convent and to the confiscation of all his goods.
- the British Parlement rejects the project David Hartley of abolition of the Traite Blacks.
- Ireland: Henry Grattan, with the head of the plain volunteers ( United Volunteers ), request independence legislative for the Irish Parliament, the removal of the “rotted boroughs” and the equality of the economic rights with the British.
- Poland: Conflict between the tycoons and Andrzej Zamoyski, whose project of civil code envisages a limitation of the serfdom and the widening of the rights of the middle-class men of the cities.
- a Lithuanian payment deprives 150 small towns of the Droits of Magdeburg which guaranteed a municipal autonomy to them.
- Russia: Potemkine is named general governor of “Russia News” (Ukraine).
- Joseph II and Kaunitz dissuade Marie-Therese to abolish the Corvée. The reforms are timid and especially aim at reorganizing the system seigneurial: the peasants of “Sunday” must return their grounds to the lord who will refund the value of it, the peasants of the “rustical” receive the right to repurchase the drudgery which is regulated.
- Decree of Marie-Therese abolishing the Torture under the influence of the adviser of State Joseph von Sonnenfels.
- Voyage of Joseph II in France under the name of Falkenstein. It takes note of the economic doctrines of the mercantilists and the physiocrats.
- Goethe becomes secret adviser of legation to Weimar.
- January 5th: Turgot proposes to the council of the king a project of six edicts abolishing the royal Corvée, removing the commercial privileges and the jurandes, imposing the Noblesse.
- April: Freedom of work; Abolition of the Jurande S, Control S, Corporation S. Edit instituting free movement of the goods in the kingdom.
- May 12th: In front of the hostility of the political circles (remonstrance of the Parliament of Paris) and commercial, Turgot resigns. In the six months, all the reforming edicts are withdrawn. But their preamble often constitutes a vigorous criticism of the institutions and they are read by the priests with preaches and posted by the municipal officers. The political debate starts to slip of the leaders towards directed.
- May 21st: Clugny de Nuits is named General inspector of finances.
- September 21st: Anne Louis Henri of Fare, future cardinal, future appointed with the General states of 1789 is ordered priest.
- September - October: Collect average wine.
- October 21st: Louis Gabriel Taboureau of Réaux is named General inspector of finances.
- November 12th: After some ministerial tests, the succession of Turgot passes to the Genevese banker Jacques Necker, named managing director of the royal Treasury . Being Protestant, it cannot be member of the Conseil of the King and is thus not named General inspector of finances. To face the budgetary difficulties resulting from the war of America, he resorts to the loan but will have to return to the policy of economies carried out by Turgot.
Art & culture
- Creation of the troop of Bolchoï.
Sciences and technology
- the Hydrogène is insulated by the British scientist Henry Cavendish.
- the French engineer Claude Jouffroy d' Abbans makes the demonstration of the Pyroscaphe , first Steamer with paddle wheels on the Doubs: it is a failure.
- History of Astronomy , Jean-Sylvain Bailly (1736 - 1793).
Economy & company
- March 9th: The British economist Adam Smith publishes Recherche on the nature and the causes of the richness of the nations .
- the bank of Stockholm goes bankrupt and the tickets which it issued are refunded only to 50% of their value of emission.
- the fastening of Fiume to the Hungary in 1776-1779 allows export by sea of wool, leather, pig, honey, wax and tobacco Hungarian.
- Construction in Spain of 10 000 km of caminos reales on the initiative of the minister Floridablanca.
- Foundation of the house of Champagne Louis Roederer .
- Birth of the first Trade union with the the United Kingdom.
Births in 1776
- March 27th: Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel, Botanist French († 1854).
- April 1st: Sophie Germain, mathematician.
- April 24th: Robert-Aglaé Cauchoix, French optician.
- June 4th: Charles-Joseph Buquet, general French.
- June 11th: John Constable, British painter .
- July 16th: Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus, Doctor and German Naturalist († 1827).
- August 9th: Amedeo Avogadro, chemist and Italian physicist († July 9th 1856)
- August 23rd: Josef Hoëné-Wronski, philosopher and scientific free - Polish († August 8th 1853)
- October 13rd: Peter Barlow, mathematician and British physicist .
- October 26th: Abdallah d' Asbonne, with Bethlehem, Mameluke of the imperial Guard and French Consul
- Mrs Hamelin, French woman of spirit.
Death in 1776
- March 24th: John Harrison simple clock and watch maker who discovered a method of calculating of the Longitude.
- May 23rd: Julie de Lespinasse.
- July 10th: Hsinbyushin, third king of the Dynasty Konbaung of Burma.
- August 25th: David Hume, British philosopher .
- Jacques Hardouin-Mansart de Sagonne, French architect (1709 -1776).
Be-X-old: 1776 Map-bms: 1776 Simple: 1776 Zh-classical: 一七七六年 Zh-yue: 1776 年
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