This page relates to the year 1775 Gregorian Calendrier.
- China: Bloody tender of the Miao-tseu, mountain dwellers independent of the Koueï Tchéou.
- Vârânasî (Bénarès) and Ghazipur is taken with the Aoudh by the British.
- a Dutch adventurer receives a charter melting an Asian imperial Company. He bases transitory counters on the coast of Malabar (1775 - 1792).
- February 9th: The Parlement of the United Kingdom declares the Massachusetts in rebellion.
- March 23rd: Speech of Patrick Henry asking a military action vis-a-vis the aggression British ( Give me liberty but give me death ) with Richmond (Virginia).
- April 19th: Beginning of the War of independence of the United States of America (fine in 1783).
- Battles of Lexington (the Men Minute, American clandestine militia badger a British column committed in a police operation) and of Concord (Massachusetts).
- the British armies are folded up on Boston. Beginning of the Head office of Boston (fine the March 17th 1776)
- May 10th: Second continental Congress. John Hancock is elected president.
- May: Invasion of Canada. the Americans take strong Ticonderoga (formerly Carillon) the May 9th, the fort of Crown Point (formerly Point-with-the-Hair) the May 11th and strong Midsummer's Day the May 18th.
- May 22nd: In front of the imminence of an American invasion to the Canada, the bishop of Quebec Jean-Olivier Briand agrees to help the Carleton governor to incite the “Canayens” to enlist in the militia to defend their fatherland and their king.
- June 15th: George Washington is named by the Congress commander-in-chief of the continental forces.
- June 17th: Confrontations of Bunker Hill in the war of American independence. Victoire of the Insurgents .
- July 5th: The continental Congress signs the Pétition of the olive branch in the hope of a reconciliation.
- August 18th: Foundation of Tucson in Arizona by the Spaniards.
- August 23rd: Proclamation off Rebellion . George III of the United Kingdom refuses the Pétition of the olive branch .
- September 6th: Catch of strong Midsummer's Day. Richard Montgomery invades the Quebec.
- November 9th: Rendering of Three-Rivers (without to be forced to do it).
- November 10th: Creation of the Continental Navy.
- November 13rd: Capitulation of Montreal.
- November 28th: The Congress establishes the Continental Navy .
- December 31st: Battle of Quebec. Richard Montgomery is killed in an attempt at invasion of Quebec.
- Three million white lives the New England. Five African million and half were brought to Americas since the beginnings of colonization.
Brazil: The slavery of the Indians is abolished, replaced by a servile labor coming from Angola, another colony Portuguese of the African coasts. Until 1850, the draft of the black slaves, will touch nearly three million and half of human beings, which will be torn off African continent to be controlled and sold to the Brazilian growers.
- January 21st, Russia: Crushing of the revolt of the Cossacks of Iemelian Pougatchev. Pougatchev, delivered by its cossacks to the general Souvorov (September 19th 1774) is transported in an iron cage with Moscow or he is decapitated the January 10th (January 21st of the Gregorian Calendrier). Repression on the spot of the revolt made 15 000 victims and continues until August.
April: Administrative reform in Russia, which is divided into 51 governments of approximately 300 000 inhabitants, in the place of the 16 provinces, themselves divided into districts ( ouezdy ). A governor appointed by the emperor is placed at their head, with broad administrative capacities, police and legal. Reform justice. Each order (noble, commercial, country free), receives courts to judge its members. Freedoms of the Cosaques Zaporogues are removed.
- May 16th - May 25th: Large Jacquerie in Bohemia. The convergent walk of the notable villagers for the abolition of the drudgery, planned for the Midsummer's Day Népomucène, is quickly exceeded. Castles are burned, of the lords are assassinated. The insurrectionists arrive in disorder in front of Prague the May 25th. Large the burgrave, Charles-Egon de Fürtenberg tries parlementer in vain. It must make charge with the knife, without making victims.
August 13rd: Marie-Therese promulgates without agreements with the Diet its license of drudgery, text accommodated well by the notable ones of Bohemia which makes it accept with the agricultural work force.
- Creation of the permanent Council ( Rada Nieustająca ) which becomes the central government in Poland: the Diet elects for two years eighteen senators and eighteen deputies, which sits under the authority of the king. Five departments are organized: foreign affairs, the Police force, Finances and the Justice, with the head of which ministers named and revoked by the king are. These reforms cause a regrouping of the tycoons against the royal authority.
- Frozen of olive-trees in Provence. Icy winter in the north of France. Normal in the Center and in the South of the country. Great cold starting from the January 8th until the beginning of February. Temperature record: -17,2°C in Paris the January 29th. The Seine is cold January 25th with the February 6th.
- April 18th - May 6th: War of the flours , disorders organized by the speculators against the reforms of Turgot. The poor harvest of 1774 and the speculation of the merchants of grain, who store to make assemble the courses, causes the “dearness” of the grains (after that of 1771 and 1773). Riots burst on the markets and the rioters impose a price control. Turgot is brought to repress hard the riots of the “war of the flours”.
- May 30th: Turgot creates the Régie powders and salpetres. Lavoisier there is named police chief and settles with the Arsenal.
- June 11th: Crown Louis XVI of France to Rheims.
- July 3rd - December 13rd: Parliament of the clergy.
- July 12th: Malesherbes becomes Secretary of State at the House of the King (fine in 1776).
- October 27th: Saint-Germain is named Minister for the war.
- Saint-Germain reform the army: removal of the bodies of the house of the king, the venality of the warheads, organization of the military academies installed in colleges held by the monks, introduction of the corporal punishments into armed, reorganization of the artillery (Gribeauval).
- November 21st: Warning with Faithful on the advantages of the Christian Religion and the effects pernicious of Incredulity . The Assemblée of the clergy worries about the projects of the reformers on the tolerance.
- February 15th: Beginning of the Pontificate of Black and white VI (fine in 1799).
- Bubble Incrustabile Sapientae which condemns irreligion, impiété, atheism and calls with the union of the spiritual powers and the temporal powers against irreligion.
Arts & cultures
- January 13rd: the finta will giardiniera of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with Munich.
- January 21st: Ariadne auf Naxos , melodrama of Georg Anton Benda with Gotha.
- April 23rd: It Re pastore , of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with Salzburg.
- Beginning of the Quarrel of Gluckistes and Piccinnistes .
- Denis Diderot: Plane of a university .
- Jean Siméon Chardin paints his Autoportrait .
- Portrait of Mrs Graham of Thomas Gainsborough.
- Self-portraits, pastels of Chardin.
- Bust of Gluck of Houdon.
- April 15th: Ledoux poses the first stone of the city-factory of the royal saltworks of Arc-and-Senans (fine in 1779).
Sciences & technology
- the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier discovers the role of oxygen in combustion.
- Boring machine of the ironmaster John Wilkinson (1728 - 1808), which allows the realization of the Steam engine.
- Jouffroy d' Abbans builds the first Steamer to have really functioned and whose improved version, with paddles, the Pyroscaphe , 46 m length and measuring 182 barrels, will go up the the Saone on several kilometers, in 1783.
- '' The Turtle '', Underwater of David Bushnell.
- Opening of the Channel of Bydgoszcz.
Economy & company
- Vienna account 175 000 inhabitants.
- Freedom of Tuscan export in which supports the production with large scales of the great landowners to the detriment of the low farm prices controlled by the government. The aggregate output of grain increases but does not involve any progress as regards social justice.
Births in 1775
- January 20th: Andre-Marie Amp, French physicist
- February 3rd: Louis-François Lejeune, painter and soldier French († February 29th 1848)
- February 21st: Jean-Baptiste Girard, military general French, and Baron d' Empire, which was useful during the wars of the Revolution and of the Empire. († June 27th 1815).
- March 21st: Lucien Bonaparte, French academician) (armchair 32) († June 29th 1840).
- April 23rd: Joseph Mallord William Turner, British painter
- July 23rd: Eugene-François Vidocq.
- August 6th: Daniel O' Connell, Irish politician called the Liberator or the Emancipator († 1847).
- August 12th: Malta-Brown Conrad, French geographer of Danish origin († December 14th 1826).
- September 10th: John Kidd Physicist, Chemist and British geologist .
- December 16th: Jane Austen, British writer .
- December 16th: François-Adrien Boïeldieu, French type-setter.
Death in 1775
Be-X-old: 1775 Map-bms: 1775 Simple: 1775 Zh-classical: 一七七五年 Zh-yue: 1775 年
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