This page relates to the year 1772 Gregorian Calendrier.
Oceania & the Pacific
- March 3rd: The French explorer Marion-Dufresne reaches current the Marion Bay, in Tasmanie. He is badly accommodated by the Aborigènes and orders with his men to open fire.
- July 13rd: Beginning of the second voyage of the British James Cook in the Pacific with an aim of recognizing the legendary southern land, which one believes that the Australia is only one part (end in July 1775). Cook reaches the 71° parallel south, skirts the ice-barrier of the the Antarctic and proves that this ground does not exist. This legend dates from the Greeks of Antiquity, who believed that such a terrestrial mass was necessary to balance the large continents of the Northern hemisphere.
- March 26th: Foundation of Oporto back Put future Porto Alegre.
- September 1st: Foundation of the mission of San Luis Obispo in California by the father Junípero Tightened.
- November 2nd: Samuel Adams and Joseph Warren forms the Committee off correspondence
- April: Warren Hastings is named governor of the Bengal, then General governor of the Indies (1773 - 1785). It accentuates centralization while placing the Treasury of the Nabab of the Bengal under the control of the Compagnie.
- the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies is saved bankruptcy only by the intervention of the State. Hasting grants to the Company the monopoly salt, opium and salpetre. The exports (sour, indigo), directed towards the Arabic peninsula and the Persian Gulf until in 1770, are it towards the east (Burma, Malacca, China).
- October 16th: Died of the king of Afghanistan Ahmad Shâh Abdâlî. The Marathes restore the emperor Moghol exiled Shah Alam II with Delhi after the departure of the Afghans. One of the opponents to the Peshwâ Mâdhava Râo Ier, his/her own uncle, then requires the assistance of the Britanniques, which grant semi-officially it to him, before withdrawing it to him.
- November 18th: Died of the Peshwâ Mâdhava Râo Ier. His/her brother Nârâyana Râo becomes Peshwâ of the Empire marathe.
- the Sikhs dominate a vast territory in the North-West of India.
- the Bhutan, which follows an aggressive policy with regard to its neighbors, enters in conflict with the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies.
- Japan: New fire with Edo. Only the palate shogounal is saved.
- Creation of the Company of the Filipino by the Spain.
The Middle East
- April 15th: The news Mosque of Mehmet II the Conqueror ( Sultan Fatih Mehmet Külliyesi ), with Istanbul (Turkey), rebuilt 1766 with 1771 at the request of the sultan Mustafa III (1757 - 1774), by the architect Mehmet Tahir Aga, after the destruction of that built at the 15th century by Atik Sinan at the time of an earthquake (1766), is opened with the prayer.
- January 17th: With the Denmark, Struensee, shown plot against the king and to have been the lover of the queen is stopped and condemned to died the 28.
June 22nd: Business James Somersett ( Somersett' S Puts ). The Committee for the abolition of the draft, founded with London by Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp, gains a lawsuit, where, referring to the natural right and the absence in England of any law or habit admitting slavery, a judge releases a black slave who had fled and who had been taken again by his Master on the English ground. The stop of Lord James Mansfield proclaims the freedom of any slave unloading in Great Britain. 15 000 black slaves then in Great Britain are freed.
June: In France, a royal declaration amnesties the priests formerly condemned to have refused the sacraments to Augustiniens.
September, Russo-Turkish war: Victoire of Alexandre Souvorov on the Turks with Karasou and Kutchuk-Kaïnardji in Bulgaria. Roumiantsev is beaten by the Othoman with Silistrie and must pass by again the the Danube.
August 21st: Absolutist coup d'etat in Sweden inspired by Louis XV. A military coup d'etat financed by the France and supported by Vergennes makes it possible Gustave III of Sweden to take again the capacity using a new constitution in a wearied country of the fight of the factions. It reinforces the monarchical capacity (initiative of the laws, right of peace and war) with the detriment of the nobility controlling the Riksdag.
- Despotic enlightened, Gustave III undertakes a series of financial reforms and legal: civil equality with all the Swedes, abolition of the venality of the loads, freedom of the press, of the worship and abolition of torture. This policy causes the opposition of most of the nobility.
- October 28th: Russian naval Victoire on the Ottoman Empire with Patras.
- 29 - December 30th: Set fire to Hôtel-Dieu of Paris.
- January-February: First division of Poland. The tsarina Catherine II means with the king of Prussia Frederic II and the archduchess of Austria Marie-Therese to remove in Poland a third of her territory.
- February 8th: Convention between Catherine II and Joseph II on the Poland.
- April: Marie-Therese of Austria lance her troops in Galicie.
- August 18th: The confederated Bar deposit the weapons.
- August 5th (July 25th of the Calendar Julien): Treaty of Saint-Pétersbourg, who ratifies the first division of Poland: the Prussia seizes Western Prussia except for Gdansk and Thorn, the Russia of the Lithuania in the east of the Dniepr and the north of the Duna and the Austria of the Ruthénie and the Galicie less Cracow.
- Poland which had in 1771 a surface of 733 000 km ² and approximately 11,4 inhabitants million, are cut down by 211 000 km ² and of approximately 4,5 million inhabitants. The heaviest losses for the country are done for the benefit of Prussia because Poland is private outlets of the the Vistula by which is carried out the 4/5° of its trade. The share of the Prussia in the division of Poland relates to 36 000 km ² and 580 000 inhabitants, that of the Austria 83 000 km ² and 2,65 million inhabitants and the Russia obtains 92 000 km ² and 1,3 million inhabitants.
- Creation by the Austria of the kingdom of Galicie and Lodomérie (of the Latinized name of the principalities of Halitch and Volodymyr, whose capital is established with Łwow.
- Stanislas Poniatowski finds his throne under the monitoring of the Russian ambassador. He tries some reforms (teaching).
- the powers require that the Polish Diète ratify the agreement of division. The king and his partisans carry out a press campaign in Great Britain and France to denounce the illegality of the dismemberment.
- a law removes the dérogeance.
- the Jewish population reaches the half-million people, that is to say 4% of the population estimated at 12 million, including only 3,5 million “ethnic” Poles. The fastening of the Galicie to Austrian monarchy involves the arrival of many Juifs in Slovakia.
Arts & cultures
- June 28th: Reform University with the Portugal: The Marquis de Pombal adds two faculties, that of mathematics and that of natural philosophy, which make pass in teaching the principal receipts of contemporary science. The creation of small schools makes it possible to start to diffuse the elimination of illiteracy. Creation also of the Royal Academy of Sciences and the Put Real Pia (at the same time crib, orphanage, school and college).
- December 16th: The empress Marie-Therese of Austria founds with Brussels the imperial and royal Académie of sciences and the humanities.
- the British painter Joshua Reynolds paints his Portrait of Samuel Johnson .
- Portrait of the Sisters Linley of Thomas Gainsborough.
- Catherine II of Russia acquires the collection of tables of the French financier Crozat.
- the Painter , re-examined Novikov, published in Russia.
Sciences and technology
- Discovered Nitrogen by the British Daniel Rutherford.
- Joseph Priestley (1733 - 1804) insulates in his mercury tank the Hydrochloric acid and the Dioxide nitrogen, then the Protoxyde of nitrogen (1773).
- the British mechanic I. Potter installs with Nová Baňa (Slovakia) an atmospheric steam engine for simple purpose to pump the water of the mine.
- Failure of the flying Tank of the Desforges abbot, canon of the Collegial Holy-Cross of Stamps.
- Art of warfare: Test of general tactic and Defense of the modern system of war , Guibert: the army is split in divisions mixing the weapons and the services, which form independent units. Division moves in column, is spread for the combat on line, and is reformed in column for the final attack.
Economy & company
- agricultural Crisis in Scandinavia (1772 - 1773). Raise mortality.
- Unification of the currencies in Spain.
- the increase in the French population is limited by agricultural crises and the localized reappearance of epidemics (1772 - 1778).
- Foundation of a loan bank for the widows and the orphans in Russia.
Births in 1772
- April 7th: Charles Fourier, French philosopher.
- April 15th: Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Naturalist French († 1844).
- April 17th: Charles François Louis Delalot, French politician.
- April 18th: David Ricardo, stockbroker and British economist
- May 20th: Sir William Congreve, British inventor of the rocket of the same name
- June 8th: : Robert Stevenson, Civil engineer Scottish known to have built the Headlight Beautiful Rock'n'roll located in the the North Sea († 1850)
- August 30th: Henri of Rochejacquelein, Vendean chief.
- October 4th: François-Louis Perne, musicographe and type-setter French († 1832)
- October 7th: Jean-François O' Mahony, general French of Irish origin. († 1842).
- October 21st: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, British poet († 1834).
- November 28th: Gottfried Hermann, German Philologist . († December 31st 1848).
- December 12th: Bertrand Clauzel, Marshal of France
Death in 1772
- March 22nd: John Canton, British physicist .
- March 26th: Charles Pinot Duclos, writer and historian French. (° February 12th 1704).
- March 29th: Emmanuel Swedenborg, naturalist, philosopher and theosophist Swedish (1688 -1772), with London on March 29th, as he had predicted. Its followers (swedenborgiens), accept its theological writings as being of divine inspiration.
Be-X-old: 1772 Map-bms: 1772 Simple: 1772 Zh-yue: 1772 年
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