This page relates to the year 1771 Gregorian Calendrier.
- May 16th: Repression of the Regulator Movement in North Carolina. Several thousands of Regulators are overcome by the army. Six of them are hung.
- July 17th: Massacre of a group of Inuits in Bloody Falls by warriors Chipewyan carried out by the Matonabbee guide during the forwarding of Samuel Hearne on Coppermine River.
- September 8th: Foundation of the mission of San Gabriel Arcángel in California.
- Official recognition of the mode seigneurial with the Quebec.
- Forwarding of Samuel Hearne in the Barren Grounds on behalf of the Company of Hudson Bay (fine in 1772).
- the exploitation of the diamond mines passes under the mode of the royal control. It is under the exclusive control of the administration.
- Emission of “tickets of extraction” then of “tickets of exchange” in the diamantiferous district. It will become truths banknotes.
- Creation with Rio de Janeiro of Academia Cientifica .
- January 9th: Abdication of the empress of the Japan Go-Sakuramachi.
- February 10th, India: Sit of Delhi. Mâdhava Râo, new the Peshwâ of the Marathes, reunifies the confederation, which makes it possible its faithful Mahadji Sindhia to take Delhi (1771) and to restore the emperor Moghol Shah Alam II on the throne (1772).
- May 23rd: Beginning of the reign of Go-Momozono, Emperor of Japan (fine in 1779).
- the Torghout, Mongolian Westerners, are established in Dzoungarie by the China.
- massive Rebellion of the aboriginals of the Jinchuan, in the west of the Sichuan (fine in 1776).
- the Burma becomes tributary of the China.
- Revolt of the Tay Its with the Vietnam against the Nguyễn.
- February 12th: Beginning of the reign of Gustave III of Sweden. It is the return of the autocracy (fine in 1792).
- Gustave III, high with the Frenchwoman, is related to the party of the “Hats”. With died of his/her father Adolphe-Frederic, the royal capacity in Sweden is very reduced and the Riksdag, is divided by intense conflicts between party of the “Bonnets”, adversary of the privileges, in favor of peace with the Russia and the Great Britain, and left the “Hats” (high aristocracy), more quarrelsome.
- March 20th: Struensee becomes Prime Minister with the Denmark (fine the January 16th 1772).
- Mars: Prussian mediation in the Russo-Turkish war: Catherine II of Russia request the Moldavie and the Valachie.
- May: Rising of exiled Polish of Siberia under the control of Móric Beňovský.
- October, Poland: The confederated Bar proclaim the forfeiture of the king Stanislas II of Poland. Overcome, they will not be able to avoid the first division of Poland in 1772.
- November 16th: The bridge of Newcastle upon the Tyne is carried by a rising.
- November 19th: Escape of the minister Guillaume Of Tillot of the Duchy of Parma. Spanish Jose of the replaces it.
- December 24th: Secret convention between Frederic II of Prussia and Catherine II of Russia on the division of the Poland.
- Plague with Moscow.
- the Russia makes the conquest of the the Crimea and destroyed the Othoman fleet. The Khanat of the Crimea passes under Russian protectorate, not recognized by Constantinople.
- Rising of the Cossacks of the the Ural.
- Introduction of the conscription into the hereditary countries of the Habsbourg.
- the rights of the bishops as regards exemptions of marriage are increased with depend on those of the pope in the states habsbourgeois.
- Treated Marie-Therese with the Othoman sultan by whom she promises to him part of the Moldavie when he would make peace with the Russia.
- Joseph II occupies the cities of the Zips, which led to the negotiations of division of Poland.
- Bad harvest in Bohemia where the freezing and the rains of spring prevented sowing. Food shortage. The beggars flow towards the cities. Marie-Therese grants a help of a million guilders. Epidemic of Plague in summer (160 000 victims).
January 11th: Terray prohibits the export of corns.
- January 20th: Exile of the Parliament of Paris. The Parliaments, which had opposed the royal edicts, are reorganized and lose their political prerogatives: in front of their resistance to the financial reforms of the abbot Terray, Maupeou condemns the unit of body of the Parliaments, then, in front of their refusal to subject itself to the royal authority, it orders the resumption of the parliamentary activities by musketeer sending in the residence of the magistrates (January 19th), exiles and confiscates the loads with the members of Parliament who refuse.
- February 23rd: Edict reorganizing justice. Maupeou creates a new Parliament whose members salaried and revocable (the venality of the offices is removed), are set up in April. The legal districts are reorganized, and the Parliaments replaced by superior councils, strictly confined in legal attributions. In spite of the protests of the former members of Parliament and aristocracy, the reform is maintained until the death of Louis XV, but is abolished by Louis XVI, which revokes the chancellor.
- February: Remonstrances of the Court of the Assistances against the lifting of new taxes, the Maupeou reform and the abuses the royal capacity, written by the first president Malesherbes. The courses sovereign are depicted there like substitutable institutions with late the General states, formerly invests of the national representation. Maupeou carries out its dissolution.
- March 22nd: The Council of State of the king qualifies a judgment and decree of the Court of the Assistances like attentatoire to the royal and contrary authority with the respect which was due to the sovereign. He makes defense at the Court of the Assistances take such stops and form such decrees in the future.
- March 27th: Malesherbes, accompanied by the presidents of Boisgibault and Montreuil and by the Dutrequin clerk go to Versailles to bring the register of the Cour of the Assistances to the king.
- April 9th: Pierre Etienne Bourgeois of Boynes is named Secretary of State to the Navy by Louis XV.
- June 6th: The duke of Pivot becomes secretary of foreign affairs.
- November 25th, Business Sirven: Thanks to the intervention of Voltaire, Pierre-Paul Sirven is rehabilitated by the Parlement of Toulouse. Protesting shown to have killed his daughter, who committed suicide in 1762, it took refuge in Suisse and was condemned to death in absentia.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Exil of Malesherbes. It belongs to a movement of opposition to the despotism, the coalition of the “patriots”, who support the parliamentary thesis against the royal thesis. Resulting from the nobility (of Aubuisson, Brancas), magistrates (Malesherbes, Augeard), ecclesiastics (Mey), lawyers (Fair, Beaumont, Target and the extremists Martin de Marivaux, Morizot and Saige), journalists (Pidansat de Mairobert), they incarnate the majority segment of the public opinion, which was essential with the rise of journalism, the urban population, the educated classes and the administrative and legal sector. They take over Jansenist, but have bonds with the philosophers and think of the implementation of a new “constitution” French, inspired of the social Contract of Rousseau and based on the respect of the law, which must be higher than the Prince and equal for all. They are in favor of a national representation by the General states, and failing this by the Parliament and assert the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, personal freedom against the lettre de cachets, the freedom of property, national freedom…
- In addition to the royalists (pro-Maupeou) and the patriots (pro-member of Parliament), a third voice, radical, is that of the philosophers maturing or more young people. Most moderate are Necker, Galiani or Turgot, which would be satisfied with a moderated absolutism, safe from the arbitrary one. The majority further see (Diderot, of Alembert, Helvétius, of Holbach, Mably, Condorcet, Raynal, Grimm, Madam d' Epinay, Mirabeau) and call upon against the despotism triumphing the Lumières and the natural law. They consider freedom like an end in itself (Diderot) or an access to justice, the virtue or happiness. They wish the religious tolerance but do not exclude to finish some with the Catholic church. Finally the innovators recommend the equality in front of the law, the popular sovereignty incarnated in a body of legislative and national representation elected official by the vote censitaire.
- With the Portugal, prohibition of the celebration of Auto-da-fe public and publication of the lists of condemned.
- Foundation with Munkács of the first évêché orthodoxe Uniate separated from the S.
Art & culture
- Encyclopædia Britannica . She knows four successive editions between 1771 and 1815.
- New investigation of Austrian monarchy to draw up the state of elementary teaching.
- June 2nd: Armida , opera of Antonio Salieri created with Vienna.
- October 17th: Ascanio in Alba , opera of Mozart created to Milan.
- November 9th: Zémire and Azor , Op3era Comique of André Grétry is created with the Château of Fontainebleau.
- Fine of the construction of the Temple of Putuo Zongcheng to the Hebei.
- Claude Nicolas Ledoux builds a neo-classic house with Louveciennes for the countess of Barry.
- Construction of the large stables of Versailles and of the saltworks of Arc-and-Senans by Ledoux.
- Jean Honoré Fragonard painted for the house a series of ornamental panels: Love awaked in the heart of an young girl.
- Jean-Antoine Houdon: the Bust of Diderot .
- Francisco Goya decorates the cathedral with Saragossa.
- Joseph-Benoit Suvée is prize winner of large the Prix of Rome with the Combat of Minerve against Mars , Jacques Louis David obtains the second price.
Discovered with Podmokoly, in Bohemia, of a bronze cauldron filled with thirty kilos of currencies and of torque out of gold of Celtic origin. The European scholars impassion themselves for Celtic civilization.
Science & technology
- the Astronome French Charles Messier draws up the first list of nebulas.
- Découverte Oxygène by the pharmacist Swedish Carl Wilhelm Scheele
- Gaspard Monge invents the analytical Geometry.
- Lavoisier analyzes the composition of the Air.
- Priestley, studying the Carbonic gas, discovers that the Respiration and the Combustion are impossible in a foul air.
Richard Arkwright makes build the first spinning mill with water of the world, with Cromford (Derbyshire), the toilets frame . It builds near the houses for its workmen, a school, a vault and an inn (1777).
Economy & company
- French foreign trade at summer multiplied by eight since 1715 to catch up with that of the Great Britain. The program of naval construction is partly succeeded: 64 linerships and 50 frigates since 1763. Terray contributes to reabsorb part of the debt and to restore the treasury thanks to very many partial reforms. Measurements are installation to impose the clergy and the nobility. They will be abolished with died of the king.
- Portugal: Crisis of the draft, which becomes overdrawn.
Births in 1771
- March 16th: Antoine Gros, painter French († June 25th 1835)
- April 21st: Népomucène Lemercier, French poet († June 7th 1840)
- August 14th: Walter Scott, British writer
- October 9th: Jan Klemens Branicki, general Polish (° September 21st 1689)
- November 14th: Marie François Xavier Bichat, biologist French († 1802)
- December 25th: Charles Athanase Walckenaer, Naturalist French († 1852).
Death in 1771
- March 20th: Louis-Michel Van Loo, portraitist (° 1707).
- June 23rd: Jose Candido Esposito, Spanish Matador (° November 30th 1734).
- July 30th: Thomas Gray, British poet (° 1716).
- December 26th: Claude-Adrien Helvétius, French philosopher (° 1715).
Be-X-old: 1771 Map-bms: 1771 Simple: 1771 Zh-yue: 1771 年
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