This page relates to the year 1770 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 14th: The British traveller James Bruce gains Gondar, in Ethiopia, by the Egypt and the Sudan. He claims to be appointed there governor of the province of Short-nap cloth-el-Wire by the Négus Takla Haïmanot II of Ethiopia.
- November 14th: James Bruce discovers the sources of the Blue Nile.
- James Bruce brings back manuscripts of which it draws a rather good translation from the old Ethiopian chronicles, and a history of the most recent reigns and events which it saw itself. It describes the monuments of Axoum, which it interprets like an emanation of old Egypt.
- Foundation of the town of Bandiagara (Mali).
- the Dutchmen of the Cape reach Graaf Reinet. At the same time the people Bantou and their herds, come from North reach the Transvaal and the river Fish. More and more offensive than the Hottentots and the mongrels (taken refuge with the Grikaland), they cooperate a few years with the Dutchmen, then the two people clash (1779).
- the extensive and itinerant breeding developed throughout the 18th century, pushing the colonists of the Cape to start a migration towards north and is (trek). They run up initially against the stockbreeders Koï-Koïn (Hottentots) and against the hunters San (Bochimans). From approximately 1770 with 1810, commandos of trekboers massacre the San systematically; the survivors emigrate towards the North-West in arid grounds which do not interest the colonists.
- Beginning of the reign of Ravahiny, queen Sakalava of Boina (fine in 1808). Ravahiny, small-niece of Andrianiveniarivo, succeeds to him. She organizes forwardings against the the Comoros with the assistance of the Betsimisaraka. She must also fight the Tsimihety which make incursions into the valley of the Sofia.
- According to Dumaine (1792), Majunga, the second city of the kingdom Boina after the capital, is directed by three Arab chiefs named by the queen Ravahiny, shelters 6000 Arabs and Indiens and receives each year two trading vessels of Surate, charged with fabrics of silk and fabric.
- April 20th: The British navigator James Cook is the first European to be unloaded on the Eastern coast of the Australia, with Botany Bay ; he takes of it the reading and conquers it on behalf of the Great Britain, giving him the name of Nouvelle Wales of the South. The place of its damping is thus named because of the large variety of botanical species up to that point unknown of Europeans, whom Joseph Banks catalogs, botanist of forwarding. Going up towards north, Cook makes the statement of some 3 200 km of coasts and succeed in the exploit to sail without damage between the coast and the reefs of the Grande barrier of coral (June 11th).
- Cook is impressed by the courage of the Aborigènes at the time of its boarding with Botany Bay . Two of them, armed with lances and piles, try to be opposed to its unloading. It notes that these people seem “happier to him than us other Europeans” and than the Aboriginals “refuse to yield least their possessions in exchange of the articles than we could offer to them”.
- August 21st: James Cook baptizes the east coast of Australia Nouvelle Wales of the South and the possession for the Great Britain asserts some. It crosses the Détroit of Torres before accosting on Java, where thirty of its men perish of the Dysenterie contracted with ground. It also proves by crossing the strait of the Probe which the islands of Java and of Sumatra are separate. Of return in Great Britain, in 1771, Cook is promoted with the rank of commander.
- March 5th: Massacre of Boston: the British troops shoot at crowd expressing against the taxes from importation.
- June 3rd: Gaspar de Portolà and the father Junípero Serra founds the mission Monterrey.
- Amendment of the Townshend Acts.
- has Borneo, of the Chinese minors installed in the areas in the north of the river Kapuas (“Chinese districts”), which work gold mines, revolt against the sultan of Pontianak and form a capacity almost independent.
- In the east of the island Indonesia of Java, the princes hindouists of Blambangan recognize the sovereignty of the VOC (Dutch Compagnie of the Eastern Indies) and convert with Islam.
- Trip study in Siberia of the French geographer Cap of Auteroche.
- January 28th: Beginning of the ministry Tory of Lord North, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1782). The king succeeds in imposing on the Communes, majority tory, the ministers of his choice under the direction of Lord North.
- September 13rd, Denmark: Bernstorff Johan Hartwig is reversed by Struensee, doctor of the king and lover of the queen Caroline-Mathilde, who becomes Prime Minister in 1771. It follows a brutal policy of reforms and publishes in 16 month 2000 orders of cabinets. It establishes principal freedoms: individual freedom, freedom of press, attack the reform of justice (suppression of legal torture). It abolishes serfdom and the corporations, regulates the drudgeries, but will not be able to finish its task.
October: Crisis between the Spain and the Great Britain which occupies the Falklands since 1766. The French minister Choiseul incites Charles III of Spain and his secretary of foreign affairs Grimaldi to resist to the British, even by the force. Louis XV, which is opposed to the war, dismisses his minister (December 24th)
- Plague with Moscow. Riots.
- In Hungary, the military border is doubled of a medical cord in order to establish forty against the Peste come from the East.
- Revolution of Orloff. Catherine II of Russia makes pass the Russian fleet of Baltique in the Mediterranean. Under the command of the Count Alexeï Fiodorovitch Orlov, twelve ship of the line and twelve frigates leave Cronstadt and are supplied in the British bases (Portsmouth, Gibraltar, Port Mahon. Venice, worries, deploys its fleet to defend its last possessions in the Eastern Mediterranean.
- Mars: The Russian fleet is anchored to Navarin.
- May: The Othoman fleet passes the Dardanelles.
- July 5th: The Othoman fleet meets the Russians, ordered by the Count Alexeï Fiodorovitch Orlov, close to Chios. A first undecided combat forces the Turks to take refuge in the bay of Tchesmé, on the Aegean coast. The Russians, with for technical advisers Elphinstone and the commodore Greig, send “Brûlot S”, stuffed oil and resin, powder ships which one attaches to the enemy ships before putting fire at it, and succeed in the night of the 7 to the July 8th igniting all the Turkish squadron whose ships were fastened free in and out. Constantinople, threatened, is saved thanks to the baron François de Tott, French of Hungarian origin.
- July 21st: Russian Victoire of Romanzov to the Battle of Kagul on the Top dog.
- September: Meet between Frederic II of Prussia and Joseph II, anxious of the rise to power of the Russia.
- October: Pierre Ivanovitch Panine takes Bender, in Bessarabia.
- December: Conquest by Russian of Akkerman, on the Black Sea, of Brăila and Bucharest.
- Mission of the prince Henri of Prussia to Moscow to propose the mediation of the Prussia between the Russia and the Turkey.
- Revolt of the Peloponnese against the Turks.
- February 18th: Joseph Marie Terray is named Minister of state.
- April 19th: The future Louis XVI wife Marie-Antoinette of Austria by procuration.
- April: Conflict enters the king and the Parlement in connection with the lawsuit of the duke of Pivot. The duke of Pivot, shown by the Parliament of Rennes to have overpowered Chalotais (1766), is translated into justice with its request by the Parlement of Paris sitting in Court of the pars.
- May 14th: Marie-Antoinette of Austria arrives at the court.
- July 2nd: the Parlement of Paris hands down against the duke of Pivot a judgment of unworthiness. The king, exceeded, break-in the judgment of the lawsuit, prohibited with the Princes of blood to sit in Court of the even , and finally, returns Choiseul, considered to be responsible for this business, the December 24th with the advantage of the Maupeou chancellor.
- July 5th: Marriage of the future Louis XVI with Marie-Antoinette of Austria, girl junior by the archduchess Marie-Therese. Popularity of the couple.
- August: Terray regulates the traffic of the grains and creates a royal corn stock to face the crisis frumentaire (1770 - 1771). This unpopular regulation feeds the rumor of a “Pacte of famine”, launched by the Provost of Beaumont, linking the king and the rich person in a speculation against the poor. In December, Terray restores certain possibilities of circulation of the subsistence between the provinces.
- December 24th:
- Disgrace of Choiseul. The coteries of court have a role in this disgrace: the “excessively pious people” bringing together the girls of the king, Vauguyon, tutor of the Dolphin, Pivot, hostile the Parliaments, the lit ideas, Austrian alliance oppose the “Choiseulistes”. Choiseul, exiled on its field of Chanteloup (Touraine), creates an active hearth of opposition there.
- Beginning of the Triumvirate of the duke of Pivot, the abbot Terray and Maupeou.
- Louis XV makes an effort, with the Maupeou chancellor to restore the absolutism and to continue the policy of tax reform (Terray).
- the French fleet, second of the world, has 66 ship of the lines.
- legal Reform in the Duchy of Savoy.
personal Reign of Léopold of Tuscany, after the departure of the count Ursini-Rosemberg with Vienna. It removes the corporations (1779), creates a chamber of commerce, of art and manufactures. It abolishes the annone and the communal goods and the grazing grounds are divided and put in culture. It reforms the municipal administration, the police force, health, removes the army to replace it by a middle-class militia.
- Removal of the Farm in the Milanese Austrian.
- has Parma, perception is directly assured by the government but one leaves to the farmers general a third incomes be collected, in order to spare the interests of the French.
- Paroxysm of the crisis. Reduction in the emission of the gold currencies, falls of 44% of the imports coming from the Great Britain and of 40% of sugar exports of the Brésil. For the State, the shortfall is considerable.
- Pombal combat the crisis on its two faces. In metropolis, it stimulates the creation of manufactures (90 before 1777), by controlling the establishments so as to ensure a homogeneous distribution on the whole of the territory. To improve quality, it calls upon foreigners, in particular of the French. The Brazil, Pombal ensures the reconversion of the economy by privileging the agricultural production at the expense of the mining production: sweeten, cotton, tobacco, coffee… It creates many companies with monopoly (of Asia, of Para E Maranha, wines of Haut-Douro…) where are associated and assured the interests shareholders the nobility or the upper middle class.
- the Prime Minister Sebastião Jose de Carvalho E Mello becomes Marquis de Pombal.
Art & culture
- November 3rd: First with Vienna of Paride ED Elena ( Paris and Helene ) opera of Gluck on texts of Calzabigi.
- the Concert of the Amateurs is animated by Gossec with Paris.
- Thomas Gainsborough: the Child in blue .
- Robert Adam built Culzean Castle in Scotland.
- Hanging garden of the Hermitage to Saint-Pétersbourg by Vallin of Mothe.
Science & technology
- James Hargreaves makes patent the first weaving loom with several pins.
- Benjamin Franklin, then person in charge of the administration of the Stations makes carry out a thorough study and a detailed cartography of the Gulf Stream.
Economy & company
- Spain: Project of direct tax on the richness land, ecclesiastical, industrial and commercial, which does not succeed. The old system remains in force (nobility and clergy are subjected to the tax).
Births in 1770
- January 8th: Jerónimo Jose Candido, Spanish Matador († April 1st 1839).
- January 14th: Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, prince, statesman and writer Polish († July 15th 1861)
- February 9th: Ferdinando Carulli, type-setter and Italian guitarist († 1841).
- February 10th: Alexandre Brongniart, mineralist and naturalist French († 1847).
- March 2nd: Louis Gabriel Suchet, Marshal of France († 1826).
- March 7th: Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor, Marshal of France.
- March 20th: Friedrich Hölderlin, German poet († 1843).
- April 7th: William Wordsworth, British poet († 1850).
- April 9th: Thomas Johann Seebeck, German Physicist discoverer of the Thermoelectricity.
- May 4th: François Gerard, French painter.
- June 10th: George Caley, Exploring Botanist and British († 1829).
- August 3rd: Frederic-Guillaume III of Prussia.
- August 27th: Hegel, Philosopher († 1831).
- November 19th: Bertel Thorvaldsen, Danish sculptor († 1844).
- December 17th: Ludwig van Beethoven, type-setter († 1827).
Death in 1770
February 12th - Christopher Midlleton, Exploring British.
- March 27th: Giambattista Tiepolo painter and engraver Italian baroque.
- April 24th: Abbot Nollet, member of the Academy of Science, Master of physics of the children of France.
- May 30th: François Butcher French painter and engraver.
- June 23rd: Mark Akenside, poet and British doctor .
- July 8th: Suzuki Harunobu (Hozumi Jihei), painter and engraver Japanese.
- August 24th: Thomas Adhesive tape, British poet which commits suicide with the Arsenic at the 18 years age.
Be-X-old: 1770 Map-bms: 1770 Simple: 1770 Zh-yue: 1770 年
|Random links:||Tinghir | Porcelain of Valentine | Cockatoo nasic | Large-gardens of Montbeliard | Kikkan Randall|