This page relates to the year 1765 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 22nd: Vote Stamp Act (tax on newspapers, official documents, policies insurances, almanacs, charts to be played, sets of dice, etc), attempt of the British ministry for finances to subject the American North to the direct tax, which causes the protest of the colonies. The colonies of north, the most touched, take the head of a movement of opposition to the decisions of the metropolis and succeed in involving the whole of the colonies.
- March 24th: Vote Quartering Act on the housing of the troops in the British Colonies.
- May 18th: A fire destroys a hundred dwellings with Montreal.
- August: Riot with Boston against the Stamp Act led by the shoe-maker Ebenezer Macintosh. The residence of a commercial rich person, Andrex Olivier, is destroyed. Two weeks later the residence of Thomas Hutchinson is plundered.
- 7 - October 25th: The declaration of the rights and complaints is adopted by the congress of the '' Stamp Act '' with New York.
- Canada: “Quebec pedlars”, named thus by derision by their competitors of the Company of Hudson Bay, hold the trade of the skins on banks of the Lac Winnipeg, the court inferior of the Saskatchewan and the Assiniboine.
- Charles III of Spain gives the order to colonize the California.
- May 3rd: Beginning of the government of Robert Cleaves with the Bengal (fine in 1767).
- August 12th: In India, Robert Cleaves sign the treaty of Allahabad with the emperor Moghol, thanks to which it Great Britain obtains the collection of the taxes to the Bengal, in Orissa and with the Bihar, whereas the nabobs preserve defense and justice.
- Conflict between Mysore, Marathes, Hyderabad and Britanniques (end in 1782).
- Haydar Ali, a Moslem adventurer of the Panjab, succeeds in founding a powerful State in the Mysore. It guerroie against the Marathes and the nizâm of Hyderabad before forming with them an abstract alliance against the British.
- January 3rd: Opening of the University of Corte.
- March 15th: The king of Poland Stanislas Poniatowski creates a “school of juniors” ( Szkoła Rycerska ) in order to form executives for the army and the administration.
- May 7th: Launching of HMS Victory.
- July 13rd: Beginning of the ministry whig of the Charles Watson-Wentworth, marquis de Rockingham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1766).
- Georges III of Great Britain is reached access of madness. It must recall the whig S to the capacity with Rockingham, and Pitt Elder the.
- August 18th:
- Beginning of the reign of Joseph II, emperor of the Romans (fine in 1790). Corégence between Marie-Therese and her son Joseph II with died of François Ier (fine in 1780). Joseph II directs the army and the foreign politics with the assistance of the chancellor Kaunitz.
- Pierre-Léopold of Habsbourg-Lorraine (1747-1792) becomes large duke of Toscane (fine in 1790). He marries the August 5th 1764 the infante of Spain Maria-Ludovica which will give him 12 children. He applies a policy of economic reforms and social. He pursues out of religious matter a policy of framing by the State.
- September 9th: Beginning of the government of Karl Gustaf Löwenhielm in Sweden. Adolphe Frederic of Sweden is based on the party of the “Bonnets” (not-privileged people) between 1765 and 1769.
- Jacquerie in Transylvania. Revolted complain about the increase in the days of Corvée compared to the Othoman period. The Hungarian government must concede a license known as urbárium (of Hungarian urber which indicates the royalty seigneuriale). She affirms the inalienable right of the serf with her ground, by determining the surface, prohibiting to transform them into reserves, in kind defines the obligations of the tenant silver and fixed up to three days per week the number of the drudgeries. The urbárium is highly disputed by the lords.
- the Hungarian diet is not convened any more by Marie-Therese until her death.
- the king of Poland Stanislas Poniatowski exposes in a review, the Monitor , its reform program: he wants to encourage the religious tolerance, the development of industry and the improvement of agriculture.
- Reforms with Parma:
- the goods of the Church are subjected to the same taxes as the laic goods. The Real Giunta beyond giurisdizione day before with the relationship with the Church. The most deserted brotherhoods and monasteries are closed.
- the minister Guillaume of Tillot replaces the various contracts of leasing by a general Ferme with the hands of the French. He proposes a Cadastre but accepts practically all the titles of exemption peerage-book and does not attack the communal and local exemptions.
- Reforms in Lombardy of 1765 with 1775.
- Pietro Verri sticks by a tax investigation to dismount the existence of a deficit in the accounts of the State lombards, which is worth to him to be charged to set up a precise assessment.
- Creation of the Supreme council of Economy, charged to make studies and proposals on the revival of the economy lombarde.
- Russia: Proclamation on the division of the Empire in governments.
cold and rainy Years (1765 - 1777).
- March 9th: Official rehabilitation of the memory of Jean Fixed, protesting marked to have assassinated his/her son to prevent it from converting with Catholicism, and to have carried out wrongly in 1762, thanks to an effective campaign of Voltaire. This business represents one of the very first the engagements of a " intellectuel" (even if the word will appear only with the Affaire Dreyfus) in the defense of innocent, and more generally in the public debate. Benevolence of the king towards the family Fixed.
- April: The the Great Council, in conflict with the Parliaments since 1755, is erased itself.
- May 22nd: Resignation of the Parliament of Brittany.
- September 20th: François Antoine kills large a Loup which he declares being the Bête of Gévaudan. He is naturalized and sent to Versailles.
- November 11th: In France, arrest of Louis-Rene Caradeuc of Chalotais, public prosecutor of the Parliament of Brittany.
- December 20th: Died of the Dolphin, wire of Louis XV.
- the assembled bishops, chaired by Loménie de Brienne, sets up a reform of the regular orders. The goods of regular, free from any episcopal control, are transferred to évêchés. The king sees of an good eye a reform which strengthens the capacity of an episcopate that it indicates and controls.
- Charles Alexandre de Calonne (1734-1802) becomes Maître of the requests.
- Increase in the import duty on the wines to Paris.
the Marshal of Richelieu and the intendant of Etigny, the Navarre-Bearn-Auch province, make pressure on the Parliament of Navarre so that it allows to the merchants cloths Jews to exert downtown full of Pau and on the council of Bayonne so that it opens his doors with the Jews of Holy Spirit. Cloth merchants, tradesmen of details (chocolate), professors of dance settle downtown.
- January 7th: Bubble Apostolicum . Clément XIII defends the Jésuites, interdict in several countries ( Apostolicum pascendi munus ).
- January 25th: The devotion with the Sacré-coeur of Jesus is recognized by a papal bubble.
- October 27th: Last execution by fire on order of the Enquiry of a Jewish Portuguese hidden.
- Prohibition in Spain of the representation of the car-sacramental , traditional demonstrations of popular religiosity.
- the canon Jansenist Ignace Müller becomes confessor of Marie-Therese (fine in 1780).
Art & culture
- Jean Chrétien Bach and Karl Friedrich Abel creates with London the concerts by subscriptions.
- happy Misery , first representation of Polish opera, works of Maciej Kamieński, which makes known folk Mazurka S .
- François Boucher becomes director of the royal Académie of painting and First painter of the King.
- Robert Adam builds Kedleston Hall (1765-1770), in the Derbyshire.
Science & technology
- July: Diderot finishes the drafting of sound encyclopedia, this one is published.
- Test on the integral calculus of Condorcet.
- the mechanic James Hargreaves (v.1710-1778) develops a spinning machine, the spinning Jenny , but the wire obtained is fine and fragile and often breaks during weaving. In 1768 Highs invents the toilets-frame : the wire obtained is resistant, but thick and coarse, it is not appropriate for the delicate fabric weaving.
Economy & company
- Jacques Necker founds a bank with Thellusson with Geneva.
- Creation of a manufacture of cotton fabrics of Neukettenhof with Vienna.
- Land surveying of all the grounds in Russia.
Births in 1765
- February 8th: Joseph Leopold von Eybler, Austrian type-setter . († July 24th 1846).
- March 7th: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, inventive French of photography
- May 25th: Louis Lézurier of Martel, mayor of Rouen
- August 21st: Guillaume IV of the United Kingdom.
- August 22nd: Carl Ludwig von Willdenow, Botanist and German Pharmacist († 1812).
- September 8th: Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, future pope Gregoire XVI († June 1st 1846)
- September 29th: Karl Ludwig Harding, German Astronomer .
- September 30th: Jose Maria Morelos there Pavon, priest and insurgent Mexican.
- October 24th: James Mackintosh, doctor, philosopher, journalist, judge and British politician. († May 30th 1832).
Death in 1765
- March 20th: Paolo Rolli, Italian writer (1687 -1765).
- May 17th: Alexis Claude Clairaut, French mathematician (° May 3rd 1713)
- July 15th: Carle Van Loo, French painter (1705 -1765).
- August 18th: François Ier of the Holy roman Empire.
- September 5th: Anne Claude Philippe de Pestels de Lévis de Tubières-Guiomard, Count de Caylus, archeologist and engraver French (Paris, 1692 -1765).
- December 20th the Dolphin Louis, oldest son of Louis XV, the Tuberculosis. His/her son Louis, duke of Berry inherits the crown.
- unknown Date: Louis-Antoine Dornel, French type-setter.
Be-X-old: 1765 Map-bms: 1765 Simple: 1765 Zh-yue: 1765 年
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