This page relates to the year 1761 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 12th: First Treated of Pardo revising the treated of Madrid of 1750 between the Spain and the Portugal.
- the average annual production of gold of the Brésil is of 10 000 kg (1761-1780).
- the Café is introduced with Rio. It develops around bay of Rio and gains the valley of the Paraíba.
January 16th: The French (Lally-Tollendal), after the disaster of Vandavashy, capitulate with Pondichéry, then lose all their possessions in the south of the India to the profit of the Britanniques. The last counter of the French Company, Mahé, falls in February.
- the Sikh Jassa Singh proclaims king with Lahore.
- the Marathe Haidar Alî becomes Râja kingdom of Mysore.
- June 3rd: Treaty of White-Hall. Renewal of the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance by the marriage of the king Charles II Stuart with the infante Catherine de Bragance, sister of Alphonse VI of Castille.
- 15 - July 16th: Battle of Villinghausen.
- August 6th: Peace enters the Portugal and the United Provinces.
- August 15th: New Pact of family between the Bourbons of France, of Spain, Sicily and Parma which promises mutual assistance in the event of threat. It is concluded by Choiseul in order to slow down the British expansion. The France obtains the supplement of the Spanish navy.
- September 21st: Execution of the father Jesuit Gabriel Malagrida. It is the last victim condemned to died by the Inquisition to the Portugal.
- October: George III of Great Britain évince the first Pitt by naming it member of the House of Lords with the title of Lord Chatham and chooses Lord Bute as minister. The public opinion takes makes and causes for Pitt and the defense of the practice founded by the Communes to choose the ministers.
December 16th: Catch of Kolberg on the Prussians by the Russians.
- the Portugal is invaded by the Spain for its refusal to close its ports with the British ships.
- Marie-Therese creates the Council of State according to the proposal of Kaunitz, which exerts the power on the hereditary countries. Kaunitz, Haugwitz and the marshal Daun becomes ministers of state with Vienna.
- Project of the Russian Senate for the Ukraine: to detach Kiev of the province to make of them the chief town of a district managed by the Senate.
See also: War Seven Year old
- February 3rd: Choiseul becomes Secretary of State to the War (fine in 1770) and to the Navy (end in 1766).
- Mars: Business Valetta. The father Jesuit Antoine of Valette, which carried out since 1741 profitable businesses to the Martinique, is ruined by the seizure of his ships by the British in 1755. He cannot honor a large credit due to a Marseilles business firm. The lawyer Jansenist of the Marseillais makes go up the business with the Parlement of Paris, which condemns the order of the Jésuites to pour a million and half of books tournaments to the plaintiffs (May), who will not see the color of it. During the lawsuit, the abbot Chauvelin denounces the despotism jesuitic and claims that the constitutions of the order are submitted to the Parliament (April). After the failure of various attempts at conciliation of the Council of in top, the Parliament adopts the conclusions of the adviser Jansenist Averdy (stop of August): they prohibit to the Jesuits recruitment beginners and the pronunciation of new wishes; their congregations and groupings are dissolves; their colleges will have to close within one year.
- May 8th: Judgment of the Jesuit S by the Parliament.
- August: Anne Robert Jacques Turgot becomes intendant of Limoges (fine in 1774).
- October 13rd:
- Choiseul-Praslin is named secretary of foreign affairs (1761-1766).
- Suicide by hanging of Marc-Antoine Calas.
- November: Lawsuit against the family Fixed, carried by Capitouls of Toulouse. Voltaire defends Jean Calas, a huguenot condemned without evidence to have killed his/her son whom he suspected of wanting to convert with the Catholicisme (fine in 1765).
Art & culture
- Joseph Haydn becomes the musician of court of the prince Paul Anton Esterhazy.
- the guest of Pierre , ballet of Christoph Willibald Gluck.
- Frescos of the Royal palace and the Academy with Madrid, Mengs.
- Ceiling of the Albani villa to Rome, of Mengs.
- Granted village, fabric of Jean-Baptiste Greuze.
- Robert Adam becomes architect of the king George III of Great Britain of 1761 with 1768.
Science & technology
- June 6th: Calculation of the distance enters the Ground and Venus (149 637 000 km) by the observation of the transits of Venus in front of the solar disk (1761 and 1769).
the British scientist Joseph Black discovers that the ice absorbs heat without changing temperature while it melts (phenomenon of the latent heat). Three years later, it will measure the latent heat of the vapor.
Economy & company
- the duke of Bridgewater makes dig a channel to connect its coal mines of Worsley to the town of Manchester. In ten years (1761 - 1772), the principal English rivers are connected between them.
- the Russian Senate decides to stop the project of general land surveying of the empire decided by Chouvalov.
- the construction of the modern first casino of the continent of Europe, Redoute, is decided by the Magistrat of Spa, Principauté of Liege.
Births in 1761
- January 19th: Pierre Marie Auguste Broussonet, Naturalist French († July 27th 1807).
- January 29th: Albert Gallatin, politician and American diplomat.
- February 4th: Blasius Merrem, German zoologist († 1824).
- October 22nd: Antoine Barnave, French politician.
- November 20th: Francesco Saverio Maria Felice Castiglioni, future pope Black and white VIII († November 30th 1830)
- Nicolas-Christmas Boutet, arquebusier, director-artist of the Manufacture of Versailles.
Death in 1761
- January 26th: Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, duke of Beautiful-Isle, Marshal of France and academician, grandson of Fouquet, superintendent of finances under Louis XIV.
- : François-Xavier Charlevoix, Jesuit and historian French.
- August 18th: François Gaspard Adam, French sculptor (1710 -1761).
- November 19th: Christmas-Antoine Pluche, French naturalist.
- November 30th: John Dollond, British optician .
- December 25th of the Calendar Julien: Elisabeth Anger of Russia.
Be-X-old: 1761 Map-bms: 1761 Simple: 1761 Zh-yue: 1761 年
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