This page relates to the year 1757 Gregorian Calendrier.
- 3 - August 9th: The general French Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, combined to the Amerindians, destroyed Fort Oswego then takes Fort William Henry, on the Lac George, which orders the high valley of the Hudson (August 9th). He controls the area of the Big lakes in North America. The king authorizes Montcalm to carry out his army as good seems to him, without the agreement of the governor Vaudreuil.
12 000 men reinforce the regular army British in 1757,14 000 in 1758, 9 000 and 1759. With the Canada, Montcalm, can be pressed only on the colonists and can hope for only very few reinforcements because of the British blockade. During all the war it can engage only 9 000 men.
- Beginning of the reign of Sidi Mohammed ibn Abd-Allah (Muhammad III), sultan of the Morocco (fine in 1790). It succeeds his father Mulay Abd-Allah, restores the order, reorganizes the army by introducing Arabs there, but does not manage to control all the country, in particular the Sanhadja of the Means Atlas. It signs a commercial treaty with France.
Reign of Bakari Ali, then of Tom Mansa, kings of Ségou (fine in 1760).
- the king of Ségou Dikoro is assassinated by members of its personal guard wearied by its exactions. His/her younger brother, Bakari Ali, reach the throne and convert with Islam. It is in its turn killed by its Praetorian which is given for sovereign Tom Mansa.
- the Burmese chief Alaungpaya (Alompra) seizes Pégou, the capital my, and controls the totality of the Burma. Pégou loses any political importance.
- the Chinese reduce the European influence by decreasing the foreign trade to Canton.
- the Chinese dominate the Tarim (Xinjiang).
- the khan of Dzoungarie Armousana, scrambled with the Chinese, is turned over against the body of occupation. The Manchu marshal Zhao Today restored the situation. The resistance of the Oïrats is demolished by the Manchu ones and Armousana must flee in summer towards the Russia where he dies shortly after in Tobolsk, at the age of thirty-five years (September).
- the Dzoungarie is annexed by the China. 600 000 Dzoungars are cut the throat of and the country is repopulated by Moslems of Kachgar IE (Tarantchis) and Gansu (Dounganes).
- In Western Mongolia, in the part of old the khanat oïrat (current Kobdo aïmak) is created an autonomous military territory directly subordinated to the representative of the emperor, as well as a military sector at the Russian border.
- the political consolidation after the repression of risings of the Oïrats and the Khalkha S allows the imperial house Qing, on the authorities of the Chinese tradesmen and the Mongolian lords, to authorize a moderate resumption of the commercial relations between the China and the Mongolia. The number of Chinese tradesmen remaining in Mongolia is however limited, like the duration and the place of the traffic, which must be carried out in the authorized cities. The sale of objects out of metal, with rare exceptions, is prohibited. It is rigorously interdict with the Chinese women to penetrate in Mongolian territory and to marry there.
- January 2nd: Robert Cleaves, which directs Madras then, called by the East India Company (English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies), takes again Calcutta at the sides of the admiral Watson with 600 Europeans and 1900 Cipayes. It takes Chandernagor, and undertakes the conquest of the territories under French control. Bussy however seizes the British possessions of the littoral of Orissa.
- January: The king of Afghanistan Ahmad Shah Abdali takes Delhi.
- March 23rd: Robert Cleaves and the admiral Watson takes Chandernagor.
- June 23rd: The soldier and British administrator Robert Clive demolishes and kills the Nabab Bengal Siraj-ud-daulah with the Bataille of Plassey in India, which opens to the British the domination Bengal. It is the beginning of British hegemony with the Indies.
the Marathes attack Delhi.
The Middle East
- October 30th: Beginning of the Sultan Othoman At of Mustafa III (fine in 1774). It succeeds his cousin Osman III.
- January 11th: Convention austro-Russian. The signatories commit themselves providing 80 000 men in the event of war against the Prussia.
- February: The emperor François Ier plain empire with the Austria.
- March 14th: John Byng is carried out.
- April: The Russia enters the coalition against the Prussia.
- April 6th: Resignation of William Pitt Old the, Minister for the War of Great Britain when Cumberland refuses to order the British forces in Germany.
- April 21st: Prussian Victoire with the Battle of Reichenberg.
- May 1st: Second treaty of Versailles reinforcing alliance enters France and the Austria
- May 6th: Failure of the offensive of Frederic II of Prussia on Prague.
- June 18th: Frederic II of Prussia is beaten by the Austria with Kollin, on the Elba. It must be folded up.
- July 2nd: Beginning of the ministry whig of the duke of Newcastle, Prime Minister for the Great Britain (fine in 1762). Pitt returns to the War.
- July 26th: French Victoire on the Hanover with the Battle of Hastenbeck.
- August 19th: The Russian army of Apraxine and Roumiantsev crushes the Prussians with Large-Jaegersdorf in Eastern Prussia. Instead of exploiting its victory by occupying the Poméranie, Apraxine is folded up on Tilsit.
- August 30th: The Prussian army demolishes the Austrians with the Bataille Large-Jägersdorf.
- September 7th: Austrian Victoire on Prussia with the Battle of Moys
- September 8th: The Great Britain and the Hanover (Cumberland) capitulate with Kloster Zeven to the French troops of Soubise.
- the French Army of Soubise is spread until the Elba.
- October 16th: Raid on Berlin of the Austrian general Hadik.
- November 5th: Battle of Rossbach, the Prussian army beats the free-imperial troops of Soubise.
- November 22nd: Austrian Victoire on the Prussia with the Battle of Breslau.
- December 5th: Battle of Leuthen, the Prussian army beats the Austrians.
- the lack of coordination between united and their errors tactical (methodical conquest by the seat of the places of the Austrians in Silesia), make it possible Frederic II to preserve his intact army (41 000 men). By movements of by-pass, it surprises the free-Germanic army of Soubise (64 000 men) with Rossbach, which loses 7700 men then disperses with 36 000 men Austrians of the prince Charles (80 000 men) with Leuthen, in Silesia.
- Frederic II uses the tactics of the oblique order: it deploys its forces vis-a-vis the enemy (mean order), and reinforces, by a movement of by-pass, the wing where must apply the principal effort, carrying out on a point a crushing superiority which enables him to break the enemy line and to lead to the backs.
- December 30th: Occupation of Königsberg by the Russia.
Riot of the taverniers of Oporto to protest against the consequences of the monopoly granted to the company of the wines of Haut-Douro, repressed hard by Pombal.
- Stanislas Poniatowski, lover of future the Catherine II of Russia, is named ambassador of Poland to Saint-Pétersbourg.
- Reform of recruitment in Russia: formerly limited to the ten governments of Russia, it is extended to the Petite Russia and the Baltic provinces.
See also: War Seven Year old
- January 5th: Attack of Damiens against Louis XV.
- the servant Robert François Damiens strikes Louis XV of an inoffensive blow of penknife to inform it to better think of its duties. It is quartered in place of Strike (March 28th). The rumor, poked by the Jansenists (Paige), denounces wrongfully a plot Jésuite (Damiens was subject to the influence of the magistrates Jansenists). Following the attack, the king, depressed, made back machine.
- Madam de Pompadour makes disgrace the count d' Argenson, friend of the Jesuits, and Jean-Baptiste de Machault d' Arnouville which had tried to move away it from the court by using the attack of Damiens against the sovereign.
- Marc-Rene de Voyer de Paulmy d' Argenson (1722-1787) becomes Secretary of State to the War (fine in 1758).
- May - September: One moment struck by the attack of Damiens, the parliamentary of province affect derechef a protestor attitude with respect to the royal taxation, in solidarity with their Parisian colleagues.
- June 28th: Bernis is named Foreign Minister (fine in 1758).
- dry Spring and summers and heat (1757-1762). Early grape harvest.
- During the summer, Louis XV points out the exiled or disgrâciés members of Parliament. Open one more slackened period.
- July 27th: set fire to the Saint-Dié-of-Vosges.
- November 19th: Creation of the Company of the mines of Anzin.
- the count Migazzi becomes archbishop of Vienna (fine in 1799). It will mark considerably the evolution of the Church in Austria.
- Legal settlement with the State Lombard.
Art & culture
- November 4th: Foundation of the Academy of the Art schools of Russia. Construction of the theater of Pétersbourg.
Collection of Antiquities Egyptian, Etruscan, Greek and Roman , of the count de Caylus.
- Hundred fines in round suitable to carry out on all kinds of instruments, with the low ones quantified for the harpsichord , of D' Aubat Saint-Flour.
- the Bather , sculpture of Falconet.
- Soufflot is chosen by the king of France on the councils of Marigny to make the plan of the church Holy-Genevieve (the future the Pantheon of Paris). Marigny makes him build the second stage side court of the wing of the colonnade of the Louvre (1757 - 1758).
- Etienne Falconet becomes director of the workshops of sculpture of the manufacture of Sevres (1757 - 1766).
- the Bavarian industrialist Oberkampf (1738-1815) settles with Paris and founds the manufacture of fabric of Jouy-in-Josas.
Births in 1757
- August 19th: Jean-Baptiste Annibal Aubert of Bayet, with the Mobile, in Louisiana. General and politician, Minister for the War of the Directory
- August 20th: Jean-Baptiste Cyrus de Timbrune de Thiembronne, general French
- September 6th: Marquis of Fayette.
- October 9th: Charles X, future king de France
- October 21st: Pierre Augereau, duke of Castiglione
- November 23rd: Jean Andre Valletaux, general French
- Birth of William Blake, poet, painter and British engraver .
Death in 1757
- January 9th: Bernard Bouvier of Fontenelle, French writer
- March 14th: The British Admiral John Byng (° 1704) is carried out after its defeat in front of Minorque.
- January 26th: Rene-Louis Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d' Argenson, Foreign Minister
- March 28th: Robert François Damiens, author of an attempted murder against Louis XV.
- July 23rd: Domenico Scarlatti, Italian type-setter.
- October 17th: Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, Scientific French (° 1683).
Be-X-old: 1757 Map-bms: 1757 Simple: 1757 Zh-yue: 1757 年
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