This page relates to the year 1756 Gregorian Calendrier.
- February 10th: End of the War of Guaranis to the Paraguay. Thousands of Indians are massacred and the survivors must take refuge in the forest.
- March 27th: French Victoire with the Battle of Strong Bull.
- May 12th: Louis-Joseph de Montcalm arrives at Quebec and becomes the subordinate of Vaudreuil. Beginning of competitions between the two men: Montcalm hardly likes to return accounts in Vaudreuil, it does not seek to protect the borders with a strict rigor and it does not make a point of saving the News-France at all costs, which Vaudreuil cannot accept, him which was born in News-France.
- May 18th: Beginning of the War Seven Year old ( Indian War , or War of conquest ) between the France and the Great Britain (fine in 1763). Manpower: French combined to the Indians: 900 men; British 1 850 men including 450 Americans. The British have 158 vessels against approximately 60 for the French.
- 10 - August 14th: French Victoire with the Battle of Strong Oswego close to the Lake Ontario. Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, combined to the Amerindians, destroyed Fort Oswego then takes Fort William Henry, on the Lake George, which orders the high valley of Hudson (August 9th). He controls the area of the Big lakes in North America. The king authorizes Montcalm to carry out his army as good seems to him, without the agreement of the Vaudreuil governor.
- September 8th: Forwarding Kittanning.
- At the beginning of the War Seven Year old, the colonists French in the North America are only 85 000, the British colonists are about 1 million, and the Amerindian 600 000.
- September 2nd: The disagreement which opposes the Bey de Tunis Ali Pasha to his son allows the troops Regency of Algiers to invade the Tunisia and to make assemble on the throne a son of Husayn ibn 'Ali, Mohammed, which reigns until in 1759.
- September 22nd: Ali Pasha is assassinated with Algiers.
- 294 American and 347 slaves live with the Cape.
- May: Resumption of the war between British French and .
- June 20th: Siraj-ud-daulah, the new nabob of the Bengal, which affirms its independence with respect to the capacity Moghol attacks Calcutta and seizes Strong William. 146 British are confined in a room without air, the “black hole”. Two thirds die asphyxiated.
- the British possessions are limited then to a whole of ports and counters divided into three residences: Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
- October: Imad-ul-Mulk takes again the Panjab with the Afghans. Their king Ahmad Shah Abdali invades India again and plunders Delhi in January 1757.
- Died of Bandan Singh, which having joined together the Jats succeeds in widening its stronghold of Bhâratpur on an important area in the south of Delhi (Agra, Dholpur, Mathurâ…).
- During the winter 1755 -1756, freezing and snow cause a “dzoud”: the animals are decimated and an epidemic of Variole carries people.
- the khan of Dzoungarie Armousana makes call using the Kazakh again of Ablaï khan. Overcome by the Manchu troops, they plunder the Dzoungarie. Armousana also fails in its efforts to gain the alliance of Catherine II of Russia. Few noble oïrats supports it, and populates it arates is wearied war.
- During the war against Dzoungarie, the khanats Khalkha S became the ground of operation of the Manchu armies, which causes the dissatisfaction with the arates like that of the laic and ecclesiastical lords. The people of the frontier aïmaks of Healthy-noïon Khanal djasaktou and evacuated their territories to fight against the occupant and their lords. Risings anti-Manchus are supported by ecclesiastical personalities the such second koutouktou of Ourga (the Bogdo Gegen) whose Rintchindordji brother is taken along to Beijing and is carried out by to have taken part in the rising of Armousana. In front of the dissatisfaction growing with Mongolian worsened by the rigor of the winter, the Mandchou emperor authorizes the chief of the Church and the touchétou to leave Beijing and to regain Ourga with the body of Rintchindordji.
- In July, a chief of two regiments to the service of the Manchu , Tchingoudjav, which stationed in Dzoungarie, crosses the border to regain its camping in the area of Heuvsgeul (Koubsougoul) and revolts against the Mandchou empire. Rising is quickly subdued and Tchingoudjav is carried out.
- January 16th: Treated neutrality of Westminster between the Prussia and the Great Britain, which provides that in the event of aggression the Hanover would be covered by the Prussian troops. This treaty calls in question diplomatic balance, Austria being, by interposed Great Britain, allied of Prussia and Russia. She seeks a bringing together with France.
- April 12th: France invades Minorque with the hands of the British.
- February 18th: Earthquake in the area of Düren.
- May 1st - May 25th: Treaty of alliance of signed Versailles with Jouy-in-Josas between the France and the Austria, which expresses the policy known as “of inversion of alliances”: for the first time since 1498, the King of France east combined with the house of Habsbourg.
- May 15th: Beginning of the War Seven Year old (fine in 1763). The France, the Austria, the Russia, the Saxony, the Sweden and the Spain are opposed to the Great Britain, the Prussia and the Hanover.
- May 18th: The the United Kingdom declares the war with the France.
- May 20th: Franco-Spanish Victoire with the Battle of Minorque. Catch of Port Mahon by the Marshal of Richelieu.
- May 28th: Catch of Minorque by the French of Galissonière. The admiral Byng, which defended the island, passes in progress martial. Condemned to dead (January 27th 1757), he is shot the March 14th 1757.
- July 12th: Treaty enters the France and the Sweden.
- July: Resumption of the diplomatic relations between the Russia and the France.
- August 29th: The Prussian army invades the Saxony whose king must capitulate with the battle of Pirna in spite of the intervention of the Russians.
- the attack of the Saxony in August then of the Austria by the Prussia starts the hostilities on the continent. The Austrian army (130 000 men), the Russian army (120 000), the French Army (130 000), the army of the Holy Empire (armed with the Circles) and the Swedish army intervene against the 150 000 men of Frederic II of Prussia and 55 000 British of Hanover. Louis XV must intervene to avoid the collapse of Austria.
- October 1st: Victoire of Prussia on Austria with the Battle of Lobositz, in Bohemia. Frederic II undertakes without success the seat of Prague.
- October 16th: Capitulation of Saxony with Pirna.
- November 16th: Beginning of the ministry whig of William Cavendish, duke of Devonshire, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (fine in 1757).
November - December: William Pitt, in favor of a maritime and colonial war with excess against the France, resigns to protest against engagement on the continent. It is called in November following the military defeats. It shares the capacity with Newcastle and Fox. Itself directs the control of the war according to its program of national alarm clock. The direction of Admiralty is entrusted to the admiral Anson, who makes a point of blocking the western and southern littorals of France.
- French Garrisons in Corsica with Ajaccio, Bastia and Saint-Florent (1756 - 1764).
- Carvalho E Mello (future Marquis de Pombal) becomes Prime Minister with the Portugal (1756-1777).
- Adolphe Frederic of Sweden is based on the party of the “Hats” (aristocracy) between 1756 and 1765.
- Ivan VI of Russia is imprisoned in the fortress of Schüsselbourg.
- High prices of the grain (1756 - 1757).
- April 11th: A letter patent of Louis XV declares notable the Master-surgeons of the kingdom.
- April 24th: Peyrenc de Moras becomes General inspector of finances (fine in 1757).
- August 21st: Edict creating new a Twentieth to finance rearmament. Recorded by the Parliament of Paris, it runs up against the opposition of the provincial Parliaments (Rouen, Toulouse, Besancon, Grenoble and Nancy).
- October 16th: Encyclical putting an end to the business tickets of confession.
- Stainville (Choiseul), ambassador in Rome since 1753, obtains from the pope Benoît XIV the encyclical bus Ex , moderate with respect to the Jansenists. It removes the obligatory character of the tickets of confession, with the help of some requirements of a spiritual nature, that the priest will have responsibility of make known with dying. The Parliaments challenge the encyclical, which they “remove” for legal flaw.
- December: The king, decided to put an end to the revolt magistrates, constrained the Parliament of Paris to record edicts depriving it of all means of action. The members of Parliament counteract once again by the strike. The high clergy, which continues to support the principle of the tickets of confession, is divided into two groups: “breaking into leaf” the, majority ones and moderated, carried out by the cardinal of Rochefoucauld; the “Théatins”, minority and extremists. The king, who suffers from his unpopularity, is depressed by aggravement crisis.
- Business of the burrow of Guyenne: the intendant of Bordeaux Tourny tries to recover the recent wine soils of the Graves, taken on the alluvia of the river, juridically properties of the king. The Parliament of Bordeaux counterpart by the strike of justice, supported by the Parliament of Rouen.
- the Cour of the assistances of Montauban is opposed to the Corvée and obtains the departure of the Lescalopier intendant, large main of the construction of the ways of the district.
- Of Ormesson becomes Intendant of finances.
- Poland: An assembly of rabbis joins together in Brody condemns the disciples Jacob Frank, which had proclaimed redeemer of the Jews, as well as the followers of the “Messiah” Shabbetaï Zevi (cf 1666). Jacob Frank and Frankistes convert with Christianity.
Art & culture
- May 25th: With Madrid (Spain), alternate of Jose Candido Esposito, Spanish Matador.
- July 30th: Inauguration of the Palate of Catherine of Bartolomeo Rastrelli
- Four engravings for an election , of William Hogarth, illustrating corruption in the British elections.
Science & technology
- Quesnay publishes economic articles in the Encyclopédie of Diderot (1756 - 1757).
- Joseph Black identifies the “fixed air” (Carbon dioxide) which is released from the limestones attacked by the acid or coming from the breathing of an animal.
Economy & company
- Creation of the manufacture of Sevres.
- Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) founds the manufacture of crockery of Etruria with Burlem (Staffordshire). It sells in the whole world of ceramics with the antique.
With most extremely of the War Seven Year old, the national expenditure French goes up to 1800 tons of money equivalent per annum. Net incomes with 700 tons. It is necessary to resort to the loan. The country, in economic good health, draws from the test, although the colonial trade (Company of the Indies, Bordeaux) crumbles. Exports are maintained with a floor of 170 where 180 million books per annum (240 million in 1748 -1756), to go up with strength as of the return of peace (1764). The interior market is defended, the cereal production goes well, with relatively high prices, carried by the purchases of the intendance. The maritime war supports the surface transport. Wool industry reaches a maximum but does not crumble, to set out again with the rise after 1763.
Births in 1756
- January 16th: Martin Michel Charles Gaudin, duke of Gaète, Politician French, Minister for Finance of the Consulate and the Empire. († November 5th 1841).
- January 19th: Guillaume-Antoine Olivier, Naturalist and Entomologist French († 1814).
- January 27th: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, type-setter.
- February 13rd: Louis Marie de Caffarelli of Falga, military general French, Brigadier general, of the Revolution († April 27th 1799).
- March 16th: Jean-Baptiste Carrier, French politician
- July 4th: Louis Marie Turreau, conventional and general French († 1816).
- December 26th: Bernard Germain Etienne of Laville-on-Illon, count de Lacépède, zoologist and politician French († 1825).
Death in 1756
Sirâj ud-DIN 'Ali Khân Arzû, Indian poet of language Persian.
- April 16th: Jacques Cassini II, astronomer (1677 -1756).
Be-X-old: 1756 Map-bms: 1756 Simple: 1756 Zh-yue: 1756 年
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