This page relates to the year 1749 Gregorian Calendrier.
- With the Canada, the wire of Vérendrye reach the stage of Strong Bourbon, go up the Saskatchewan to the confluence of its two branches, then build Strong Paskoyac (the Step).
- With the Surinam, Adoc, chief of the Profit, black chestnuts in escape, obtains independence. Another black chief, Arabi, probably Moslem, are seen recognizing the right to found to him also a Republic, with the proviso of not accepting chestnuts more.
- Dupleix control the Carnatic, receives important tributes as of its allies and is made recognize governor of the south of India. The English company reacts mollement, then appoints a new governor, Clive, which includes/understands the policy of Dupleix and imitates it.
The Middle East
the Busaidi seize the power with Oman. They transform theocracy into secular State and commercial and maritime power.
- January 4th: Naval Victoire of the corsairs of Tripoli on Venice with the Combat of Céphalonie.
- January 8th: Shipwreck of the Amsterdam close to Hastings in England following a storm, at the time of its first voyage.
- Mars: Diplomatic bringing together enters the Austria and the France at the time of a “secret conference” with Königsegg, large Master of the court, Khevenhüller, great chamberlain, Bartenstein and Kaunitz.
- April 24th: Charles-Alexandre of Lorraine enters to Brussels after the departure of the French.
- June 29th: Guillaume of Tillot becomes general inspector of Finances of the Duché of Parma.
- In Austria, Haugwitz reforms the institutions by separating the administrative businesses from the exercise of justice: it creates an administrative directory divided into seven sections which it chairs and a supreme court ( Oberste Justizstelle ) chaired by the chancellor of Austria Seilern. The administration and the financing of the army are centralized. The government of the Bohemia is abolished the May 2nd and is replaced by a simple Court of Appeal. Similar measures are taken in all the hereditary countries. The bureaucracy develops. The Hungary guard its old structures feudal and the orders keep their privileges.
- Foundation of Rostov-sur-le-Don.
- April 23rd: Disgrace of the Minister for the Navy Maurepas, suspected of “poissonnade” against Madam de Pompadour.
- May: To restore the balance of the budget, supported by Louis XV in spite of the protests of the privileged people, the general inspector Machault d' Arnouville creates the tax of the Twentieth, taking away of 5% on all the incomes, without time limit, to set up a greater equality in front of the tax. The Parlement of Paris records the tax.
- June: Machault invites a certain number of bishops to forward to the authorities a declaration goods, incomes and properties of the clergy. Resistance comes from the “clergy considered foreign” (évêchés joined together with the kingdom after the end of the 16th century). This clergy not being represented in the assemblies of the clergy, Machault thinks of coming to end easily. The bishop of Verdun refuses by mandement the application of the edict. Machault retorts by the Edict of Mainmorte (August), which prevents the extension of the ecclesiastical property.
- October: Convocation of an extraordinary assembly of the States of Brittany. It is located at the provincial starting points of antagonism with respect to the new tax of the Twentieth; antagonisms parallel with the commercial dispute, resulting from the parliamentary and clerical mediums.
- Payment creating the body of the Bridges and Chaussées (Philibert Orry).
- frontier Agreements with the cantons of Bern and Geneva.
Art & culture
See also: 1749 with the theater
- February 28th: The British writer Henry Fielding publishes his novel of adventure '' Tom Jones ''.
- April 27th: Music for the royal fireworks of Georg Friedrich Haendel, is presented to London.
- July 20th: Voltaire and Emilie of Châtelet arrives at Lunéville where they will remain some time at the court of the king Stanislas Leczinski.
- July 24th: Diderot is imprisoned a few weeks with Vincennes for its philosophical Pensées and its Lettre on the blind men .
- September 10th: Died of Mrs. of Châtelet. Voltaire accepts the invitation of Frederic II to be gone in Prussia.
- the Vanity of the human desires , poem of Samuel Johnson.
- Spring ( Der Frühling ), descriptive poem of Ewald Christian von Kleist.
- Letter on the blind men with the use of those which see Diderot.
- Test on the origin of human knowledge of Condillac.
- Procession of the knights about the Bath in front of the abbey of Westminster , fabric of Canaletto.
- Staircase of the king with Fontainebleau, realized in the Style rubble.
Science & technology
- Beginning of the drafting by Georges Buffon of sound Natural history (fine in 1789).
- Experiments of Benjamin Franklin on the electricity (1749 - 1752).
- Of Alembert proposes the first analytical solution of the precession of the equinoxes.
- the doctor of Marie-Therese, the Netherlander Gerald van Swieten is named perpetual president of the medical college of Vienna.
Economy & company
Digging of the current port of Nice.
- Rustical : cadastration of country tenures in the possessions of the Habsbourg.
- Great Britain: GNP increases by 1% per annum between 1749 and 1780.
- 1 740 000 inhabitants in Sweden.
- the hospodar Constantin Mavrocordato abolishes the Servage in Moldavie.
- Establishment of a cloth manufacture with Kladruby (Bohemia).
- Discovered first Russian layer of Oil.
- Russia: Re-establishment of the colleges of the mines and manufactures, removed in 1725.
Births in 1749
- February 2nd: Alexandre Camille Taponier, general French.
- March 8th: Gilbert de Riberolles, French politician, appointed of the Third state of the Seneschalsy of Riom to the General states. († November 26th 1828).
- March 23rd: Pierre-Simon Laplace, mathematician, astronomer, and physicist French
- May 17th: Edward Jenner, invents vaccination against variola († 1823)
- August 28th: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer († 1832)
- September 4th: Stanislas Adelaide, girl of Mrs. of Châtelet, with Lunéville.
- November 17th: Nicolas Appert, inventive French († June 1st 1841)
- December 17th: Domenico Cimarosa, Italian type-setter
Death in 1749
- May 28th: Pierre Subleyras, Toulouse painter (1699 -1749).
- September 10th: Emilie of Châtelet, woman of letters and scientist.
- October 26th: Louis-Nicolas Clérambault, French musician.
- November 14th: Maruyama (丸山権太左衛門), fighter of Sumo Japan board. 3rd in the history of this sport to have reached the rank of Yokozuna. (° 1713).
- December 4th: Mrs. de Tencin, baroness of Saint Martin's day of the Ile de Ré.
- December 8th: Claudine Alexandrine Guerin de Tencin, baroness of Saint Martin's day of the Ile de Ré, writer and famous salonnière.
- December 23rd: Mark Catesby, British naturalist (° 1683).
Be-X-old: 1749 Map-bms: 1749 Simple: 1749 Zh-yue: 1749 年
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