This page relates to the year 1748 Gregorian Calendrier.
- April 14th: Argentinian foundation of San Nicolás of los Streams in .
- October 18th: Treated of Aachen. Return to the situation of before the beginning of the war (cancellation of the conquests, as that of Louisbourg which goes back to France).
- With died of Galdan Tchereng, its second wire Adja Khan, thirteen years old is elected khan of Dzoungarie. It is killed little out of time afterwards by rebellious aristocrats and a period of anarchy starts, weakening the khanat. The khans follow one another unable to guarantee their capacity.
- Among the rival lords, two powerful aristocrats are distinguished: Dawadji, wire of the clan thoros, and his friend Armousana, who lives in the mounts Tarbatagaï. They undergo initially a series of defeats and must pass in Russian territory. The Russians, anxious of the situation in Dzoungarie for their trade and fearing the annexation of the country by the Manchu , promise their supports to them. Returned in Dzoungarie with a small number of faithful, the two men surprise the khan Lamadordjii and kill it. The lord oïrate elect new a khan, whose capacity is unstable as much.
- April 29th: Beginning of the reign of Ahmad Shâh Bahâdur Moghol emperor (fine in 1754). The Empire moghol is reduced to the district Delhi.
- Forwarding of the king of Afghanistan Ahmad Shah Abdali in the Panjab.
- the Britanniques take again Madras in India with the French, exchanged against the fortress of Louisbourg, with the Canada. The seat of Pondichéry by the Britanniques is a failure. An intense Franco-British competition starts in India.
- Dupleix continues the policy of penetration while being combined with the natives. In some month, it extends its influence on all the Dekkan, playing of the conflicts between the local despots. He seeks to obtain to subadar (governor moghol) of Dekkan a delegation of powers on the Carnatic. He sends the marquis de Bussy-Castelnau to help the subadar to subdue a revolt. Bussy succeeds in establishing a true French protectorate on the area, by overcoming the Marathes.
The Middle East
- January 29th: During the council of cabinet, Marie-Therese makes the decision to follow Haugwitz (1702 - 1765) against the majority, and to engage in Austria the reforms that this one recommends: he proposes to withdraw with the orders the administration of finances to give it between the hands of the central government, which causes the violent opposition of the Aristocratie, in particular that of the Chancelier of Bohemia, the count Frederic Harrach.
- April 8th: Arrival in Geneva of the Julien family. * November 25th: François Trouvé becomes general abbot of Cîteaux and until in 1790 will remain it, when the abbey was taken in the revolutionary and mainly destroyed upheaval.
- For the first time of its history, the Russia intervenes in a conflict in Western Europe by sending troops on the the Rhine.
- Taken Maastricht by Maurice of Saxony.
- April 24th: Beginning of the talks of Aachen.
- May: Louis XV writes with Ferdinand VI of Spain to announce to him that he wants a peace without annexations.
- October 18th: The treated of Aachen, negotiated in April between Lord Sandwich and San Severino, puts an end to the War of succession of Austria.
- Recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction.
- Louis XV, however in the most favorable situation, gives up its conquests (Netherlands, Savoy, Nice), is committed to expel the applicant Stuart of England and not creating a wearing of war with Dunkirk.
- infant It Gift Felipe, second wire of Philippe V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnèse, obtains the duchies of Parma, Plaisance and Guastalla (fine in 1771).
- the west of the Milanais passes from Austria to the Maison of Savoy. The Habsbourg preserve the Milanese and Tuscany, the Bourbons of Spain control Naples, Sicily, Parma and Plaisance. Genoa, Venice, the Papal States and Piedmont-Sardinia are the only powers independent of Italy.
- the Silesia is guaranteed to the Prussia.
- the Traité of Vienna, which ensured king de France the heritage of the Lorraine died of Stanislas Leszczyński, is confirmed.
- the Great Britain returns Louisbourg and the island of Cape-Breton the (Canada) in France, which returns Madras to him, in India
- the French public opinion considers these results not very satisfactory, “animals like peace”.
Art & culture
See also: 1748 with the theater
- Montesquieu publishes “ spirit of the laws ”, which pleads for the separation of the capacities in the governments. The work has an immense repercussion, but is attacked by the Jesuits and the Jansenists, who criticize his praise of the natural religion violently. The faculty of theology of Paris condemns the work, put at the Index by the pope, as of his publication in 1748.
- anonymous Parution of Therese philosophizes . This work is traditional clandestine edition erotic of the XVIIIe century. Allotted has Jean-Baptiste Boyer d' Argens, one could suspect a time Diderot to be the author about it.
- Voltaire written “ Zadig or the Destiny ”, philosophical tale and Sémiramis , tragedy.
- indiscreet Jewels , Romance libertine of Diderot.
- the Young scholar , first part of Lessing.
- Messiade , epopee of Klopstock published between 1748 and 1777.
- April 6th: Discovered ruins of Pompéi.
- the British painter Thomas Gainsborough paints his “ Robert Andrews and Marie, his wife ”.
- Construction of the Opera of the Castle of Versailles and the French house in the park of Trianon by Gabriel (1748 - 1750).
Science & technology
- the Swiss Mathématicien Leonhard Euler publishes its “ Introduction to the infinitely smalls ” or “ Introductio AD infinitorum ”.
- the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler discovers the formula eip + 1 = 0. The legend tells that Euler saw a divine appearance by writing this formula.
- the British Astronome James Bradley publishes his work on the terrestrial Nutation, which it had highlighted a score of years earlier.
Economy & company
- Crisis of subsistence in Norway.
- Frozen of olive-trees in Provence.
- Bad financial statement of the kingdom of France after the War of succession of Austria. The economy, except for the colonial trade, was not too hard touched and is maintained.
- Suppression of the galères in France.
- Closing of the forging mills, distillings and glassmakings in a radius of 200 km around Moscow, to stop the deforestation.
Births in 1748
- : Gottfried August Bürger, German poet († 1794).
- March 10th:
- John Playfair, British mathematician .
- Gabriel Bexon, known under the name of Abbot Bexon, French naturalist († 1784).
- May 3rd: Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, Politician, French academician (armchair 31) († 1836)
- May 10th: Louis Jean Pierre Old-fashioned, ornithologist French († 1831).
- April 23rd: Felix Vicq d' Azir, Doctor and anatomist French († 1794).
- April 30th: Jacques-Louis David, painter French.
- May 7th: Olympe de Gouges, theorician of the Feminism.
- August 8th; Johann Friedrich Gmelin, German Naturalist († 1804).
- August 18th: Pierre Sonnerat, Naturalist and explorer French († 1814).
- December 9th: Claude Louis Berthollet, chemist French († 1822).
Death in 1748
Be-X-old: 1748 Map-bms: 1748 Simple: 1748 Zh-yue: 1748 年
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