This page relates to the year 1745 Gregorian Calendrier.
June 25th: Catch of the Fortress of Louisbourg on the Island of Cape-Breton the by the British: William Pepperell, a commercial rich person ship-owner in charge of the command of the colonial troops and Peter Warren, in charge of the direction of all the vessels of the colonies located at the north of the Virginia, after having besieged Louisbourg during six weeks, force Louis Of the Bridge Duchambon to yield the fortress to the English.
Insurrection with the New Jersey, where the poor farmers dispute the ground with the rich person owners, who require rents. Samuel Baldwin, who has a title property granted by the Indians, is stopped for non-payment of the rent to the close and imprisoned owner with Newark. The people force the doors of the prison to release it. When two of the men who have released Baldwin are stopped, of the hundreds of citizens of the New Jersey are assembled in front of the prison and the occupants release some.
- January 20th: With died of Charles VII, his son, the new voter of Bavaria, milked with Marie-Therese whose husband, François of Lorraine, is elected emperor in September (Auguste III of Saxony being rejoined to the Austria).
- May 11th: French victory with the Battle of Fontenoy (Flanders). The French Army (40 000 men), placed under the command of the marshal Maurice of Saxony, gains a victory difficult over the British armies, Hanovrienne, Hollandaise and Austrian with the orders of the duke of Cumberland, general British and third wire of King Georges (45 000 men). France can conquer the Austrian Netherlands.
- June 4th: Victoire of Frederic II of Prussia on Austria with the Battle of Hohenfriedberg in Silesia. Frederic II of Prussia invades the Bohemia and the Saxony.
- August 19th: the Second rising in Scotland of the Jacobites, in favor of Charles Edouard Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie), with the thrones of England and Scotland. Charles Edouard Stuart unloads the August 2nd, takes Edinburgh then penetrates until the center of England with the support of the Tories.
- August 21st: Pierre de Holstein-Gottorp, the future Pierre III of Russia wife Sophie d' Anhalt-Zerbst, future Catherine II of Russia.
- September 12th: shipwreck of the Götheborg, ship of the Swedish Company of the Eastern Indies of return of China in the port of Gothenburg.
- September 13rd: François-Stephan of Lorraine is crowned emperor of Germany in Frankfurt. Beginning of the reign of François Ier, Germanic Roman Emperor (end in 1765).
- September 21st: Victoire of the Jacobites to the Battle of Prestonpans.
- September 30th: Victoire of Frederic II of Prussia on Austria and the Saxony with the Battle of Soor in Bohemia.
- December 14th: Victoire of Frederic II of Prussia on Austria with the Battle of Kesselsdorf.
- December 25th: Peace of Dresden. After its victories with Kesselsdorf and Hohenfriedberg, Frederic II of Prussia imposes on Marie-Therese the renewal of the Traité of Breslau which confirms with the Prussia the possession of the Silesia.
- July: Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, rams Normalizing It of Étiolles, is made marchioness of Pompadour.
- Madam de Pompadour, submitted to the court in February, becomes main official of the king. Helped by a small circle of personal advisers (the Brothers Paris, the cardinal of Richelieu, the cardinal of Tencin and its sister, its doctor Quesnay), she exerts a great influence on the monarch, and controls truly until her disappearance (1764). She makes disgrace the general inspector Philibert Orry, hostile in Pâris.
Bourgeois of Boynes becomes Maître of the requests.
- Taken again anti-huguenote repression between 1745 and 1752, marked by the resumption of the sendings to the galères for Calvinism, the executions of pastors (Grenoble, Montpellier, Toulouse) and of the “rebaptisms” forced in the area of Nimes (1752). Repression will soften after 1756.
Art & culture
See also: 1745 with the theater
- First dictionary Dutchman-Japanese.
- Voltaire returns to Versailles where it is named historiographer of the king thanks to Madam de Pompadour.
- an epistle with my dress , of Michel-Jean Sedaine.
- Dialog of Sylla and Eucrate , Montesquieu.
- the Italian painter Giovanni Battista Piranesi begins the sketches for its “Carceri d' Invenzione” (imaginary prisons).
Science & technology
- the German scientist Ewald von Kleist fortuitously discovers the phenomenon of the accumulation of electricity (the Leyden jar).
- Treated insectology of the Swiss naturalist Charles Bonnet.
Economy & company
- Foundation of the Porcelain factories of Chelsea to London.
- 622 000 inhabitants in Norway.
- Hungary: The peasants Coumans and Iazyges repurchase their freedoms lost in 1702.
France: 25,3 million inhabitants in the current borders.
- Frozen of olive-trees in Provence.
- the total trade of Bordeaux with the the Caribbean, of 13 million books in 1717, goes up to more than 50 million between 1740 and 1745. 200 million books of national exports to France.
Births in 1745
- January 16th: Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier, inventive French
- February 18th: Alessandro Volta, Italian, known physicist for his work on electricity. († March 5th 1827).
- March 4th: Kazimierz Pułaski, “father of the American cavalry” († October 11th 1779)
- March 11th: Bodawpaya, or " Bodawphaya" , king of Ava (today Myanmar) of 1782 with 1819. († June 5th 1819).
- April 20th: Philippe Pinel, founder of modern psychiatry. († October 25th 1826).
- August 29th: Jean-Charles-Louis de Mesrigny, Knight of Mesgrigny-Villebertin and commander of Malta. († December 28th 1828).
- February 1st: Jose Romero, Spanish Matador († 1826). unknown
- Day and months: Perrucho (Francisco García), Spanish Matador († June 8th 1801).
Death in 1745
January 20th: Charles VII, emperor of Germany.
- May 22nd: François-Marie de Broglie, Marshal of France (1671 -1745)
- November 16th: Lucas von Hildebrandt, Austrian architect baroque (1668 -1745).
- December 19th: Jean-Baptiste Van Loo, French portraitist (1684 -1745).
Be-X-old: 1745 Map-bms: 1745 Simple: 1745 Zh-yue: 1745 年
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