This page relates to the year 1713 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 26th: By the treaty of the Asiento, the the United Kingdom secures for thirty years the monopoly of the trade of the slaves with the Latin America and becomes the first slave nation. It obtains Spain the authorization to send a ship per annum in the Spanish colonies (vessel of permission). The British post this vessels opposite Buenos Aires, the other ships making the shuttle with Bristol.
- April 11th: Treated of Utrecht. The Hudson Bay, the Acadie and Newfoundland are yielded to the British by France, which preserves the Île of Cape-Breton the. Saint-Christophe is allotted to the British.
- May 19th: Food shortage with Boston. Two hundred people attack the ships and the warehouses of a commercial rich person, Andrew Belcher, which exports cereals with the the Caribbean. They kill the lieutenant-general who tried to intervene.
June 23rd: The French authorities encourage the Acadie NS to leave Plaisance (at the south-eastern end of Newfoundland, called Placentia today) for the Cape Breton (island in north-eastern edge of the Nova Scotia), but without success.
- France made strengthen Louisbourg (Island of Cape-Breton the).
- Taken again growth of the population of News-France, thanks to a strong birthrate.
- the North Carolina is managed directly by the British crown after a rising against the system of property. Rich person speculators seize themselves of almost 200 000 ha of the best grounds along the coast. The poor, despairing to have grounds, are installed without property rights ( squatting ) on pieces and fight against the claims of the great landowners to make them pay rents.
- the slaves of the colony of the Cape are decimated by an epidemic of Variole. Again slaves are imported of Madagascar and East Africa, but also of India, Indonesia, Ceylon and Malaysia.
- January 6th: Demolished Jahandar Shâh with the battle of Samugarhh.
- February 11th: Farrukhsiyar makes strangle his/her uncle Jahandar Shâh in its prison
- June 11th: Beginning of the reign of Farrukhsiyar, emperor Moghol. It finally will be deposited and put at died in 1719 by its ministers Abdullah and Hussain Ali which had helped it to seize the power. They put on the throne the brothers Rafi-ud-Darajat and Rafi-ud-Daulat.
- Balaji Visvanath is named Peshwa (Prime Minister) by the king Marathe Shahu. He becomes the true Head of the State. Seven peshwa will succeed to him until in 1818.
Nizam-ul-Mulk becomes governor of Hyderabad.
Plague in Austria. 2500 victims with Vienna.
- 12 - February 13rd: Charles XII of Sweden is besieged by the Turks with Bender.
- February 25th: Beginning of the reign of Frederic-Guillaume Ier of Prussia (fine in 1740).
- April 19th: Pragmatic Sanction of the emperor Charles VI, regulating his succession, ensured his/her daughter Marie-Therese (born in 1717) with the detriment of the line of his/her older brother Joseph Ier.
- May 5th: The Swedish general Magnus Stenbock, passed in Germany, must capitulate with Tönningen (the Schleswig-Holstein).
- Frederic IV of Denmark takes Verden, Bremen and Wismar with the Sweden.
- the Russian general Menchikov conquers the Poméranie.
- Russian Countryside in Finland. Catch of Abo in March.
- Renewal of the Treated of Prout (1711) with Turkey-red cotton between the Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
- the Scot claim the abrogation of the Acte of Union of 1707, which is refused to them.
- January 29th: Second treaty of the Barrier to Utrecht between the Great Britain and the United Provinces.
- April 21st: Treaties of Utrecht between France and Great Britain, France and Brandebourg (Prussia), France and Portugal, France and Savoy (1713 - 1715), negotiated for France by Polignac, Huxelles and Mesnager: Philippe V preserves the crown of Spain but yields to the empire the Spanish possessions in Italy and to the Netherlands. Gueldre Spanish master key in Prussia. France preserves its conquests (it gives up its garrisons beyond the collars at the border with Savoy but receives the area of Barcelonnette (Vallée of Ubaye)). France commits itself demilitarizing Dunkirk and recognizes Anne Stuart, widow of Guillaume III, like queen. The applicant Jacques III Stuart is expelled of France. The Great Britain receives invaluable advantages overseas (Acadie, asiento black) and becomes the mistress of the seas. Holland, exhausted by the war cannot fight any more against it.
- July 13rd: Treaty of Utrecht between Spain and Great Britain, Spain and Savoy. Philippe V preserves Spain and the colonies, but must yield of compensation Milan, Naples, the Sardinia and the Netherlands with Charles de Habsbourg become the emperor Charles IV. Savoy obtains the Sicily, Great Britain Gibraltar and Minorque. Charles IV leaves the Catalogne (July) where the Inhabitants of Barcelona resist until September 1714. The Bourbons of Spain adopt the salic law.
- August 21st: Villars takes Landau
- October 30th - November 20th: Villars occupies Freiburg-in-Brisgau.
- November: Villars meets the Prince Eugene with Rastadt to discuss peace between the Empire and France, thanks to the mediation of the Elector Palatine.
- the kingdom of Naples is occupied by the Austrians.
Religion and Philosophy
- September 8th: Publication of the Bubble Unigenitus, solicited by Versailles, which condemns 101 extracted proposals of the Réflexions morals of the father Pasquier Quesnel, impressed Jansénisme. It causes the made indignant reaction of a great number of magistrates who see it like encroachment of the pope on the rights of the bishops and the prerogatives of the State in France.
- Publication with Neufchâtel of a complete Liturgy of Pasteur orthodoxe calvinist Osterwald (1663 - 1747).
- Project to make peace perpetual to Europe by the Abbot of Saint-Pierre.
Art, Architecture & Culture
See also: 1713 with the theater
- Creation of the royal Academy of the Spanish language.
- the Cup-and-ball , satirical test of Marivaux.
- Memories of the count de Gramont , Antoine of Hamilton.
- the Forest of Windsor , Alexander Pope.
- Caton , tragedy of Joseph Addison.
- Mérope , tragedy of Scipione Maffei.
- Four Books of parts of harpsichord of Couperin (1713-1730).
- Andre-Cardinal Destouches is named general inspector of the royal academy of music.
- Gallia christiana of the Benedictine Denis of Holy-Marthe (1713 - 1725).
- Decorations of the vault of Vera-Cruz by Joaquin Churriguera.
- Robert de Cotte transforms the hotel of Vrillière (future Banque de France) for the Count de Toulouse (1713 - 1714).
- Construction of the basilica Saint-Charles-Boromée to Vienna.
Science & technology
Economy & company
- Starter of economic revival in France.
- the navy of Spanish war aligns 20 ship of the lines and account 6000 sailors.
- Cadiz accommodates the British vessels with import duties lower than those of the other States.
- With the thirteenth row in Europe for its population, the Prussia has the fourth army of the continent (40 000 men in 1713,81 000 in 1740).
Births in 1713
- May 3rd: Alexis Claude Clairaut, French mathematician († May 17th 1765)
- October 2nd: Allan Ramsay, British painter.
- October 5th: Denis Diderot, writer and philosopher French († 1784).
Death in 1713
- January 11th: Pierre Jurieu, Pasteur and French theologist protesting in exile with Rotterdam since 1682 (° 1637).
- February 4th: Shaftesbury, British philosopher (° 1671).
- December 25th: Jean Chardin, traveller celebrates French (° 1643).
Be-X-old: 1713 Map-bms: 1713 Simple: 1713 Zh-yue: 1713 年
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