This page relates to the year 1697 Gregorian Calendrier.
- August 20th: Andre Brue named managing director French commercial to the Senegal the June 4th, arrives at Saint-Louis It begins its explorations in the Bambouk (fine in 1723).
- May 6th: The French sailors Pointis and Ducasse take Carthagène of the Indies in Colombia. They return to Brest only after multiple adventures.
- March 13rd: The last Maya city is occupied by the Spaniards in the Yucatán.
- September 21st: The Traité of Ryswick, whose main object is to put an end to the Guerre of the League of Augsburg, has implications in America:
- Canada: Pierre LeMoyne d' Iberville takes Port Nelson in “bay of North”.
- the Spanish Jesuits, after having installed a mission in the south of current the Arizona, penetrate in Low-California.
- Discovered of gold to the Brazil in the Minas Gerais and the Mato Grosso. Pierre II of Portugal, having this gold, will not convene any more the Cortes with the Portugal.
- May 3rd: After the execution of his/her son with Beijing, the khan of Dzoungarie Galdan commits suicide. His/her cousin Tchewang Rabden, wire of Sengué, succeeds to him like khan of Dzoungarie (fine in 1727). The central capacity starts to decline with the profit of that of the lords Oïrats, who deliver to plundering Russian colonies of Siberia.
- September 20th: To the peace of Ryswick, the Dutchmen must return Pondichéry to France.
- Tibet : The regent Sangyé Gyatso envoit its minister, Shabdrung Ngawang Shonu at the court Manchu to inform the Emperor Kangxi of died of 5th and discovered the 6th Dalaï Lama Tsangyang Gyatso. The 5th Panchen LAMA, Lobsang Yeshe, conferred the wishes of monk of beginner at the young person Dalaï Lama who also was established as a 6th Dalaï Lama at the time of a ceremony to which assisted the civils servant of the government Tibetan, the population of Lhassa, the Mongolian princes, and the representatives the Emperor Kangxi.
- the Russians advance victoriously until the Kamtchatka which passes under their domination.
- the remainder of the Champa is annexed by the Vietnam iens and becomes the province of Binh Thuân.
- the inhabitants of the north of the Célèbes, the Minahassan, sign a treaty of alliance with the Dutchmen. They remain in fact isolated.
The Middle East
March 20th - September 1698: Pierre Large the visit incognito the Germany, the Holland, the England and Vienna, accompanied by Switzerland Franz Lefort and by Alexandre Menchikov. This group, known like the Large Embassy, studies naval constructions and Western industry. With Könisberg, it handles the weapons and is made deliver a patent of artillery Master, with Amsterdam, it is engaged on the building sites of the Dutch Compagnie of the Eastern Indies. It recruits captains for his fleet, metallurgists, soldiers and architects. With Vienna, it negotiates with the emperor to approach the Holy-League against the Turks. The revolt of Strelsy forces it to run to Moscow.
April 5th: Beginning of the reign of Charles XII, king de Suède (fine in 1718). As of the fifteen years age, it must face a coalition of Frederic IV of Denmark, of Auguste II of Poland and the tsar of Russia Pierre Large the.
- May 9th: beginning of the talks of the Treated of Ryswick.
- June 27th: The duke of Saxony Auguste II the Fort is elected king of Poland (beginning of the dynasty saxonne) (Reign of 1697 with 1707 and 1709 with 1733).
- With died of Jean III Sobieski, 18 candidates aspire to his succession. His/her Jacques son, impotent to constitute a party, is isolated. Frederic-Auguste, voter of Saxony, candidate of the Austria, the Russia and the Brandebourg, are elected king de Pologne after his conversion with the Catholicisme, thanks to the support of Flemming and with the detriment of François Louis de Conti, the candidate of France, elected in 1697.
- Frederic-Auguste, prince of the dynasty of Wettin is Protestant and must convert with Catholicism. He has as an ambition to link the industrial Saxony mines and textile and the agricultural Poland by the annexation of the territories of the Silesia depend on the Bohemia. Resident with Dresden, he remains a foreigner for the Poles.
- August 9th: Vendôme takes Barcelona.
- September 11th, Second austro-Turkish war: Victoire of the Prince Eugene of Carignan-Savoy on the Turks with Zenta, on the the Tisza in Transylvania. 30 000 Othoman its killed and the sultan requires peace.
- 20 - September 21st: The Traité of Ryswick puts an end to the Guerre of the League of Augsburg: Louis XIV must make his acquisitions posterior to the peace of Nimègue, but guard Strasbourg, Sarrelouis and the Alsace. France recognizes with the Dutchmen the right to establish a line of garrisons, known as of the Barrier, in the Spanish Netherlands.
- Recrudescence of the movement of dissatisfied the Hungarian.
- Jean de Brouchoven, count of Bergeyck, Minister for Finance of the Spanish Netherlands (1697 - 1700) tries to develop the economy by the Mercantilisme. It creates an Eastern Company of the Indies but runs up against the Anglo-Dutchmen.
- In Poland, the language ruthene is excluded from the registers of the courts.
- Edict establishing the forging mills of Tobolsk for the needs for the Russian army out of rifles and guns.
- Famine in Scotland (1696-1697).
Vote by the Parliament of Dublin exclusively Protestant of criminal laws prohibiting to the catholics the access to public employment, banishing Ireland any member of the catholic clergy and encouraging conversions with Protestantism (1697 - 1704).
- Institution of an annual civil list to solve the question of royal finances. The specific needs will be met by finance laws ( Money Bills ) voted step by step.
the deficit of the budget of the State reaches 16 million £.
- the Parliament imposes on the Banque of England the doubling of its capital to enable him to face the conversion of the tickets into currency, which it could not have done the previous year. It receives the monopoly of emission of the tickets and is implied in the businesses of the State: it must discount the credits of the State, manage the loans, make advances on the tax proceeds.
- January: Marc-Rene de Voyer d' Argenson becomes general Lieutenant of police force of Paris. It organizes the system of the lettre de cachets (fine in 1715).
- April 1st: Jean Bart becomes chief of squadron.
- June: Establishing edict of the lanterns in the streets and places of the kingdom.
- December 7th: Weddings of Marie-Adélaïdede Savoy and the duke of Burgundy, elder grandson of Louis XIV.
- Memories of the intendants for the instruction of the duke of Burgundy (1697 - 1700).
Arts & culture
May: expulsion of the Parisian troop of the Italian Actors, shown satirical opposition to the Maintenon and the clergy.
- Charles Perrault publishes the Contes of my mother Oye .
- Edition of the correspondence of Bussy-Rabutin and Madam de Sévigné.
- Explanation of the maxims of the Saints , of Fénelon, which starts again the quarrel quietist.
- historical and critical Dictionary , of Pierre Bayle.
- The Battle off the books , of Jonathan Swift, starts in England a Querelle of Old and Modern.
- Inattentive the of Jean-François Regnard.
See also: 1697 with the theater
- December 17th: Issé , opera of Andre-Cardinal Destouches, appreciated by the king Louis XIV.
- the Feast of Alexandre , poem of John Dryden put in music by Purcell.
- gallant Europe , opera ballet of Campra (first of the kind).
- Venus and Adonis , opera ballet, of Henry Desmarest.
- Caduta dei decemviri , opera of Alessandro Scarlatti.
- December 2nd: the chorus of the Cathédrale Saint-Paul of London is opened with the public.
Sciences & technology
- Swiss the Jacques and Jean Bernoulli develops to them Calcul of the variations.
- the tsar Pierre Large the undertakes the study of the lifestyle of the Western Europe. He traverses it incognito, taking part, amongst other things, with the construction of a ship in the Netherlands, like simple carpenter, and meeting Isaac Newton. Its goal was to modernize Russia while observing what was done elsewhere.
Economy & company
- Saint-Domingue practically produces neither sugar nor tobacco in 1697. As of 1714, it produces 7000 tons of sugar per annum, 10 000 in 1720, 43 000 in 1743 with the first world rank.
- the Bratti Italian created with Vienna the first factory of weaving of Silk.
Births in 1697
- October 7th: Giovanni Antonio Canal known as Canaletto, painter and Italian engraver, with Venice.
- November 10th: William Hogarth, painter and English engraver with London.
Death in 1697
- November 22nd: Liberal Bunting, French architect.
- François d' Orbay, architect and engraver (Paris, v. 1634-1697).
- April 7th: Easter Sunday
Be-X-old: 1697 Map-bms: 1697 Simple: 1697
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