This page relates to the year 1691 Gregorian Calendrier.
- January 21st: battle of Sabana Real or battles of the Lemonade with Saint-Domingue.
- March 19th: Rendering of Jacob Leisler.
- May 16th: Execution of Jacob Leisler with New York for treason.
- August: An English raid carried out by the major Peter Schuyler, with 300 militiamans and Iroquois, is pushed back with Laprairie.
Plymouth is absorbed by the Massachusetts.
- Law of Virginia condemning to the banishment any free white individual who would have married with a negro, a mulatto or an Indian.
- Epidemic of Yellow fever with the Brazil.
- the Morocco ains take Larache and Asilah with the Christians, but the Portuguese Mazagan cannot drive out.
- the establishment of the Cape becomes officially the Colonie of the Cape.
- Revolt of the Jats carried out by Churaram.
- Trichinopoly pay tribute with Aurangzeb.
- the princes Khalkha S decide with the diet Dolon-NOR to adopt Manchu nationality . In April, the emperor Qing receives their tender in the presence of the Bogdo Gegen. There is no more independent Mongolia until in 1911.
- the Mandchous remove the old system of feudal dependence inside the leading class. All the Mongolian lords are placed directly under the authority of the emperor.
- the Manchu conquest puts an end abruptly to the trade with the China. The submitted people are isolated inside even from the empire, and the trade is prohibited.
- a law more attaches the arates to the pastures: the noble ones of first class can have 60 families of arates ( hamdchilga ), while those of lower row must have some less.
The Middle East
- Bad harvests in Europe (1691 - 1703). Raise price of corn. Misery increased in the Limousin and Burgundy.
Mars - July: Auto-da-fe S with Majorque after the discovery of a secret Synagog in 1678. 37 people are burned for crypto-Judaism. The 300 families of Conversos of the island are treated with contempt ( chuetas ) and must lie in the Ghetto ( fixes ) until in 1782.
- March 12th - April 5th: Sit and taken Nice by Catinat. Louis XIV takes the title of count de Nice.
- Louis XIV declares the war with the Principauté of Liege.
- April 8th: Sit and taken Mons by Luxembourg in the presence of the king de France.
- July 12th:
- Victoire of the Protestants with Aughrim in Ireland.
- Beginning of the Innocent Pontificate of XII (fine in 1700). Devout and charitable pope, it will reconcile the the Vatican with Louis XIV and the Church of France.
- August 19th, Second austro-Turkish war: Victoire of the Austrian armed forces and Prussians against the Othoman armies with the Battle of Slankamen. Died of the vizier Fazıl Mustafa Köprülü.
- September 12th: Jean-Georges IV of Saxony becomes voter of Saxony and margrave of Misnie.
- September 18th: Victoire of Luxembourg on the prince de Waldeck with the Battle of Leuze, close to Turned.
- October 3rd: The Irish revolt ends with the Traité of Limerick. The last Irish insurrectionists, ordered by Sarsfield capitulate with Limerick. More 10 000 Irishmen must exile themselves in France, while the Protestants receive the entirety of the political power, economic and social. The catholics can hold neither weapons nor horses, and the mixed marriages the Anglo-Irish are prohibited.
- December 4th: Diploma Leopoldinum guaranteeing freedoms of Transylvania. The privileges of the three Nations are confirmed and the administration of the country is entrusted to a governor chooses among the local nobility. The Transylvania reinstates Austrian monarchy.
- June - August: the countryside of Broad the . Tourville defends the coasts of the West.
- July: the Dolphin enters to the Conseil of in top.
- July 15th: Disgrace of Louvois which dies suddenly (July 16th). His/her son Tellier, marquis de Barbezieux succeeds to him like Secretary of State of the War. The diplomat Arnauld de Pomponne becomes secretary of foreign affairs and inaugurates a softer line in the negotiation.
- Paul de Beauvilliers becomes minister of state.
- Judgment of the declaration of the clergy of France.
- an edict of the king Louis XIV of France founds the offices of the usher-appraisers and the swear-appraisers.
Art & culture
- May: Fontenelle between with the French Academy.
- the Masters of Philosophy pertaining to the various colleges of the University of Paris, joined together with the College of the cardinal Lemoine, undertake not to teach the philosophy of Descartes in their establishments.
- Tales of Charles Perrault (1691 - 1695).
- Athalie of Jean Root.
See also: 1691 with the theater
the English musician Henry Purcell composes the king Arthur ( The British Worthy ).
Portrait of Mrs. de Maintenon of Pierre Mignard.
- Rebuilding of the church of the Madeleine with Aix-en-Provence by Laurent Small valley.
- Treated of architecture , of Aviler.
- Architecture practices , of Pierre Bullet.
Economy & company
- In Spain, the useless civils servant are returned with a half-treatment.
Births in 1691
Death in 1691
- April 23rd: Jean-Henri d' Anglebert, harpsichordist, French type-setter.
- May 23rd: Adrien Auzout, astronomer.
- July 16th: François Michel Tellier de Louvois, Minister for the French War. It leaves a fortune of nine million books (close to the double for the Louvois clan).
- August 14th: Richard Talbot, count de Tyrconnel, catholic Lord governor of Ireland of 1687 at 1691.
- October 19th: Isaac de Benserade, poet (Paris, 1613 - Gentilly, 1691).
- December 30th: Robert Boyle, physicist and chemist Irish.
- April 15th: Easter Sunday
Be-X-old: 1691 Map-bms: 1691 Simple: 1691
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