This page relates to the year 1659 Gregorian Calendrier.
- June 16th: Mgr François of Laval, appointed first bishop of Quebec, arrives in News-France. Its authoritative temperament and its conviction that the Canada is a station of avant-garde of the Catholicisme will be a source of conflicts with the civil capacity.
- December 11th: End of the Colonization courlandaise of Americas.
- Conquest of Palembang to Sumatra by the Dutchmen. The company makes sure the trade of the Poivre while the sovereigns of south-west then the sultan of Atjeh must recognize Dutch protectorate.
- November 10th: Conflict between the chief Marathe Shivaji and Afal Khan, sent by the sultan of Bijâpur, which is killed by a Bagh-nakha and whose army is dispersed. Shivaji takes Kholapur. Aurangzeb intervenes, occupies Poona and drives out the Marathes Kalyan. Shivaji practices the guerilla against the governors Moghols.
- November 19th: Robert Knox, pushed by a storm, is made prisoner with Ceylon by the king Râjasimha II (fine in 1679).
- Dutch Establishments with Patna, Balasore and Nagapatam.
- War of the Boers against the Hottentots, which are overcome (fine in 1660).
- the Yaga ruin San Salvador (old Mbanza), capital of the kingdom of the Kongo. They will be driven out by the Portuguese.
- the executive power passes to Algiers and Tunis of the pasha to the Aga, ordering of the militia of the Janissaire S ( odjak ), renewed by election every two months. An anarchistic mode follows. All the aghas are assassinated by the janissaries themselves (1659 - 1671).
- the Alawite Mulay Rachid leaves the kingdom of the Tafilalet, controlled by his/her brother, and takes refuge with the Eastern Morocco where it joins together an army.
- January 16th: The Portuguese force the Spaniards to raise the head office of Elvas.
- 10 - February 11th: Charles X Gustave of Sweden fails in its attempt to take Copenhagen.
- May 7th: Franco-Spanish suspension of fighting.
- June 4th: Preliminaries of peace enters the France and the Spain.
- August 13rd: First Anglo-Spanish conference in the island of the Pheasants.
- November 7th: Mazarin and gift Luis of Haro signs the Traité of the Pyrenees on Bidassoa between the kingdoms of France and of Spain which marks the 27 years end of war, it marks also a period of domination of the kingdom of France on Europe. The Roussillon, the Cerdagne, the Artois and of the fortified towns on the border of the North-East (Gravelines, Quesnoy, Landrecies, Avesnes, Philippeville, Marienbourg, Montmédy and Thionville) become French. Louis XIV will marry the infante Marie-Therese with a dowry of 500 000 ecu for its renunciation of the throne of Spain. Condé amnesties, which was used Spain since 1653 in exchange of a letter as tender.
- November 14th: Nyborg, besieged by the Swedish since the beginning of the years, is released by a task force Dutch ordered by the admiral De Ruyter.
- the Russian of Troubetzkoy capitulate to the Polish coalition, Cosaque and Tatar E. The Poland preserves Right Bank of the Dniepr.
- the Croat Juraj Križanić, priest and catholic theologist, comes to plead with Moscow the cause of the unit of the Slavic ones. Exiled with Tobolsk, he will write “ the Russian Empire at the 17th century ”. Grâcié in 1676, they will settle in Poland.
- January 27th: Richard Cromwell is proclaimed governor. It misses authority to control the generals and abdicates on May 25th.
- May 25th: Richard Cromwell gives up his station of Lord Protecteur of England, Scotland and Ireland, putting a term at ten years of dictatorship in England, exerted initially by his/her father, then by him.
- the English general John Lambert tries to found a dictatorship. To the head of the army of Scotland, the general Monck enters London the December 23rd. He makes dissolve the Parliament and prepares the Restoration. A new Parliament is elected in the old forms, which votes a recognition of the royalty (April 1660).
See also: 1659 in France
- February 14th: Riots with Aix-en-Provence directed against the first president of the Parliament, Henry de Forbin-Maynier. The duke of Mercœur, governor of Provence makes occupy the city (March 2nd). An order of the king is torn with the town hall of Marseilles (October 16th).
- February 17th: Fouquet remains only superintendent of Finances with died of Servien.
- June 23rd: Hugues de Lionne is minister of state.
- November 10th: Twenty-ninth and last synod of the Churches reformed of France to Loudun.
- As from 1659, the intendances of province, hitherto intended to finance the war (1635 -1659), becomes instruments of centralization during one time of relative peace (1661 - 1672).
Art & culture
- January 24th: Oedipus , tragedy of Pierre Corneille, ordered by Nicolas Fouquet.
- November 18th: First representation of the ridiculous Invaluable of Molière.
- Second stay of Blaise Pascal with Port-Royal.
- Sermon of Bossuet on the Eminent dignity of the poor .
- Letter with the marquis de Créqui on the peace of the Pyrenees of Saint-Évremond, hostile with Mazarin, which obliges its author to be exiled in England (1661).
- heroic Stanzas , poem of John Dryden.
See also: 1659 with the theater
- Cambert makes present to Issy its Pastorale , at the origin of the French opera. Lully makes present the ballet of the Mocking remark .
- Louis Vau directs new work to the Louvre. Ours arranges the garden of the Tuileries.
Sciences & technology
- the Martian area of Syrtis Major is observed for the first time by the Astronome Dutch Christiaan Huygens.
- December: Huygens obtains results on the quantitative expression of the Centrifugal force and on the isochronism of the cycloidal fall, which intervene in particular in the construction of the clocks. In its Systema Saturnium , it solves the problem of the “handles” of Saturn by affirming that it is rather about a ring surrounding planet, comments on the first observation of the nebula of Orion and determines dimensions of the Solar system.
- Treated caster , of Blaise Pascal.
Economy & company
- Austria: Under the influence of Caméralistes (Mercantilist S), the production of luxury for the market of Vienna develops. Measurements prohibit the importation of a series of products (1659 and 1671).
- monetary Crisis in Poland due to the production of copper currency. The grosz , the Unit of Account, falls of 50% of 1659 with 1666.
Births in 1659
- : Jakob Roggeveen, exploring Dutch
- July 20th: Hyacinthe Stone, painter
- September 10th: Henry Purcell, English type-setter
- November 19th: Jacques-Louis Small valley of Mimeure, member of the French Academy
Death in 1659
- February 11th: Guillaume Colletet, French poet.
- February 17th: Abel Servien (1593 -1659), Minister for Finance of Mazarin.
- April 13rd: Easter Sunday
Be-X-old: 1659 Map-bms: 1659 Simple: 1659
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