This page relates to the year 1656 Gregorian Calendrier.
- November 26th: Jérémie Deschamps of Rausset is named lieutenant of the island of the Tortoise, charged with reconquering the island.
First revolt of the slaves in Guadeloupe.
- Cayenne, first permanent French establishment in Guyana.
- Epidemic of Variola: A Dutchman traversing the New-Country-Low reports that the Indians affirm that before the arrival of the Christians and before variola is not on their premises propagated, they were ten times more. The Indians Wampanoag of Martha's Vineyard, saved by the war, who were perhaps three thousand on arrival of the English in 1642, will be nothing any more but 313 in 1764. Those of Block Island, which are of 1200 to 1500 in 1662, will be nothing any more but 51 in 1774.
- May 12th: The Dutchmen, combined to the king of Kandy Râjasimha II, take Colombo with the Portuguese.
- August 26th: Beginning of the reign of Narai, king of Siam (fine in 1688).
- China: Koxinga occupies the island of Chongming to the estuary of the Yangzi Jiang.
- First negotiations between the Russia and the China.
- India: The Moghols attack Hyderâbâd and Golkonda; Annexation of Javli by Shivâjî Bhonsla.
The Middle East
- September 15th: Mehmet Köprülü (1575 - 1661), of Albanian origin, becomes top dog of the Ottoman Empire (fine in 1661).
- Plague in Spain (1656 - 1658).
- the Plague reached Genoa, Rome and Naples (1756 - 1757). Naples, the most important city of Europe (300 000 inhabitants at the beginning of the century), loses 50 % of its population. Genoa and the Ligurie, 20 % (90 000 hearts on 440 000). Rome, 17 % (reduced to 100 000 inhabitants).
- January 24th, Swiss Civil war in : Victoire of the five catholic cantons with Villmergen on the Berneses.
- May 7th: Peace is restored in Switzerland with Baden thanks to the mediation of the France and the neutral cantons.
- July: Peace talks between the France and the Spain.
- November 6th: Beginning of the reign of Alphonse VI, king of Portugal (fine in 1683) under the regency of his/her mother Marie-Louise de Guzmán.
- January 7th: Treaty of Könisberg: the voter Frederic Guillaume Ier de Brandebourg agrees to substitute Swedish suzerainty for that of the Poland on his duchy of Prussia.
- April 1st: Jean II Casimir Vasa is crowned with Lwów.
- June 30th: First battle of Warsaw.
- the exactions of the Protestants awake catholic patriotism in Poland. Jean II Casimir Vasa reappears with Léopol, then takes again Warsaw. Charles X Gustave of Sweden, attacked by the emperor, the king of Denmark and by the tsar manages to take again the city twice, with the assistance of Frederic-Guillaume de Brandebourg then of Georges II Rákóczy.
- 28 - July 30th: Swedish Victoire at the second Battle of Warsaw
- October: Peace of Wilno, with the imperial mediation: the Polish succession with died of Jean-Casimir will be offered to Alexis Ier, which will have to give up in exchange its conquests in Lithuania and Ukraine, and to be combined with the Poland against the Sweden.
See also: 1656 in France
- January: The Grand Arnauld is excluded from the Sorbonne under the pressure of the Jésuites.
- January 23rd: the provincial Letters of Blaise Pascal about the arguments present of the Sorbonne alert the public opinion.
- March 24th: Miracle of the holy spine with Port-Royal: cure of Marguerite Périer, niece of Pascal.
- April 27th: A declaration organizes the institution of the general hospitals, at the origin of large “renfermement of the poor” and the vagrants.
- July 16th: Turenne is overcome by Condé with Valencian. The Parlement of Paris benefits from it to raise the head.
- July 18th: Royal declaration envisaging police chief sending in province for a rigorous application of the edict of Nantes (applied in 1661).
- September 25th: The cardinal of Retz, to importune Mazarin, threat to prohibit the diocese of Paris.
- September 27th: Turenne takes Capelle.
- Bouchu becomes intendant of Burgundy (fine in 1683).
Philosophy & Religion
- January 23rd: Blaise Pascal begins the writing of its Provinciales , written letters with his/her friend Jansenist Antoine Arnauld, whose publication is clandestine; it denounces there certain methods of the Jésuite S, like the Casuistique (fine the March 24th 1657).
- July 27th: Baruch Spinoza is excommunicated by the rabbis who obtain his banishment of Amsterdam. It remains in the suburbs of the city during five years living of the polishing of optical glasses. He writes its first philosophical work, Court Treaty on God, the man and his happiness , the Tractatus theologico-politicus ( Traité théologico-policy , published in 1670) and the essay Of intellectus emendatione ( Of the reform of the understanding , published in 1677).
- November - December: Stay of Blaise Pascal with Port-Royal-of-Fields.
- Quarrel of the Rites: The Inquisition authorizes the Rites malabares and the Chinese Rites.
Foundation of the sect of the Quakers by George Fox, animated of a spirit deeply levelling and hostile to any dogmatism. They want to reach God by a mystical interior illumination.
Died of Paul de Kolomna, last bishop traditionalist of Russia. The lack of bishops will involve the disappearance of priesthood at the “Old Believers” and the appearance of two currents: in north and in Siberia, them “without priests” their own bosses indicate; the others decide to resort to the priests of the official Church.
Art & culture
- the Maid of Orleans , poem of Jean Chaplain.
- spite in love with Molière.
- the Invaluable one or mysteries of the lanes of Michel de Pure.
- Treasure of research and antiquitez Gallic and françoises of Borel.
- Oceana , of James Harrington.
See also: 1656 with the theater
- The Sits Rhodos off ( the Head office of Rhodos ), first English opera created by sir William Davenant.
- Opera of Florence.
- Shepherds of Arcadie , fabric of Nicolas Chick.
- Ménines , fabric of Vélasquez.
- Town halls of Marseilles, Arles, Aix-en-Provence and Toulon, where Pierre Puget paints the Atlantes .
- Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini conceives the Place Saint-Pierre of Rome to Rome.
Science & technology
- the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens discovers the nature of the rings of Saturn and its larger satellite Titan.
- Of the geometrical spirit , Blaise Pascal.
- Invention of the beam of clock by Christiaan Huygens.
Economy & company
- Slow demographic increase in Italy after the Plague (explosion of the marriages, resumption of the birthrate). The areas of latifundia (Pouilles, Latium of North, Maremme Tuscan) to strong birthrate fill their losses in 30-40 years, the areas of small properties (Campanie) more slowly.
- Foundation in Sweden of the first European bank of state.
- monetary Crisis in Sweden due to the adoption of monetary copper as standard (the parts become enormous).
- monetary Crisis in Russia. The government decides to strike roubles of copper to replace, with an equal course, the roubles of money (5 million roubles of copper struck in 5 years).
Births in 1656
- May 31st: Marin Marais, musician French.
- June 5th: Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, French botanist († 1708)
- October 10th: Nicolas de Largillière, painter French.
- October 29th: Edmond Halley, Astronomer English.
Death in 1656
- January 3rd: Mole, chancellor of France.
- February 25th: Madam de Guise (Henriette Catherine of Merry), at the age of sixty and eleven years. grandmother of Miss.
- April 2nd: Ferdinand III, with Vienna.
- April 27th: Gerrit van Honthorst, Flemish painter (° November 4th 1590).
- April 27th: Jan van Goyen, Dutch painter (1596 -1656).
- May 17th: , Dutch painter (Haarlem, 1591 -1656).
- August 17th: Miss de Chartres, the last girl of Gaston and Marguerite. She had much charm and his/her parents had decided to keep it with them with Blois instead of entrusting it to a convent.
- December 9th: Girolama Mancini, sister of the cardinal Mazarin and mother of an important batch of Mazarinettes.
- December 28th: Laurent of Hyre, French painter (1606 -1656).
- April 16th: Easter Sunday
Be-X-old: 1656 Map-bms: 1656
|Random links:||76 (number) | Certificate off Proficiency in English | Frank Hoyt Taylor | Fresh water lens | Bouquettraube | Algèbre_élémentaire|