This page relates to the year 1644 Gregorian Calendrier.
- March 24th: Pasteur Roger Williams obtains a charter for the colony of the Rhode Island.
- March 30th, Quebec: The dogs, whose famous Pilot bitch, unearth Iroquois hidden in the neighborhoods of City-Marie. Maisonneuve prepares the attack. It proves however that Iroquois are 200. The French must quickly beat a retreat.
- April 18th: Attacks Indian in Virginia. 500 colonists are killed.
- May 23rd: Departure of Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen of the Brazil; the governor of the coastal territories occupied by Dutch since 1630, Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen resigns to protest against the exploitation with excess carried out by the Dutch Compagnie of the Western Indies. As of its departure, the Portuguese colonists supported by the Portugal (become again independent of the Spain in 1640), raise themselves against the Dutch capacity.
- Migration of Virginia NS towards the Maryland (1644 - 1649).
- Forwarding To carry there Casanate in California.
- One starts to cultivate the Canne with sugar in the the Antilles.
- March 3rd: Har Rai becomes religious leader Sikhs (fine in 1661).
- Agreements of Goa: the Portugal recognizes the annexation of Ceylon by the Dutch.
- the Russian reach the borders of the Mandchourie on the river Amour.
- Central Asia: Beginning of the reign of Abu' L Ghazi Bahadur, khan of Khiva (fine in 1663).
- April 3rd: The Mandchous seize Beijing and found the Dynastie Qing which will last in China until in 1912.
- the chief of revolted the Chinese Li Zicheng walk on Beijing. The emperor Ming Chongzhen, given up, hangs himself (April 25th). At the border, the military chief, Wu Sangui concluded an armistice with the Manchu which provides him troops. Li Zicheng proposes in Wu Sangui to share the capacity. This one refuses and of spite, Li Zicheng makes massacre its family. Wu Sangui and the Manchus put the rebels in rout and seize Beijing. But the Manchu army invests the city, proclaims emperor Fulin, the nephew of Abaqaï under the name of Shunzhi and under the regency of his/her uncles. Wu Sangui accepts the viceroyalty of the Shaanxi from where it drives out Li Zicheng then kills it (May 27th). The Ming resist in South-east (fine in 1661).
Oceania & the Pacific
- February with August: Abel Tasman explores the coasts north and west of the Australia.
- the Dutch settle with the Mauritius.
- 3 - May 5th: Turenne and of Enghien is not easily victorious the imperial ones of Mercy to Freiburg-in-Brisgau.
- May 26th: Victoire of the Portugal on the Spain with the Battle of Montijo.
- September 12th: Turenne takes Philippsburg, releases left bank of the the Rhine and devastates the Souabe.
- September 15th: Beginning of the Pontificate of Innocent X (fine in 1655). He is elected against the will of Mazarin.
- September 28th: Beginning of the seat of Crystallized by the Turks.
- December 4th: Opening of the congress of Westphalia, with Münster for the catholics and with Osnabrück for the Protestants. Peace negotiation with Linz.
- December 18th: Christine of Sweden reaches her majority (18 years). It seizes the power and is opposed to the chancellor Axel Oxenstierna. There loses its influence, but remains chancellor until his death in 1654.
- the Habsbourg are combined to the Turks so that they attack the Hungarian Transylvania.
- With the assistance of the France and the Sweden, the prince of Transylvania Georges Rakóczi invades the Austria. The emperor Ferdinand III is constrained to accept the majority of the requirements of Rakóczi, including one total religious liberty for all the Hungarians placed under the authority of the Habsbourg.
- Reconquest of Lérida by Spain.
See also: 1644 in France
- January 27th: The edict of Measured tax houses of the suburbs of Paris.
- July: The regent grants the Noblesse to the 1er degree with the Magistrat S of the Parlement of Paris.
- August: The Taxe of Easy the imposes a loan on fortunes.
New wave of Plague.
- Many incidents and “popular esmotions” in the provinces Frenchwoman. Revolt in Languedoc (1543 - 1545).
- Creation of the Regiment of Brittany
- Henriette de France, queen of England, returns to France.
- January 26th: The parliamentary army pushes back the Irish catholics come to support the king with Nantwich.
- March 21st: Royalist Victoire with Newark.
- March 29th: Victoire of the Members of Parliament of William Waller with the Battle of Cheriton.
- April 22nd - July 16th: Sit of York by the Members of Parliament.
- June 29th: Royalist Victoire with the Battle of Cropredy Bridge.
- July 2nd: Victoire of the troops of the Parliament and the Scot to the Battle of Marston Moor, where appear Cromwell and Fairfax. They occupy the north of the England.
- September 1st: With Tippermuir, James Graham, marquis de Montrose, and the royalists Scot beat the covenantaires.
- September 2nd: Following the second Battle of Lostwithiel (Cornouailles), the south-west of the England passes under royal control.
- September 13rd: The royalists Scot beat the covenantaires with Aberdeen
- October 27th: Victoire of the Members of Parliament at the second Battle of Newbury.
- December 19th: The House of Commons passes the Coil-denying Ordinance .
Arts & cultures
Descartes publishes the Principles of philosophy , work in philosophical matter in which, according to its terms, he seeks “to give a rigorous base to the philosophy”. It introduces a classification of sciences and philosophy radically different from that adopted before. It is an big event of the thousand-year-old IIe.
Biathanatos , of John Gives.
- Of education , lampoon of John Milton.
- the Pañchatantra , collection of Tale S and Fable S in Sanskrit, is translated into French.
See also: 1644 with the theater
- Luigi Rossi presents Orféo to Paris.
- the French painter Claude Lorrain painted Seaport to the setting sun .
- Beginning of the contruction of the Jama Masjid with Delhi (fine in 1656).
Science & technology
Opera geometrica of Torricelli.
Economy & company
- the number of unemployed with London reaches the figure of 40 000.
- Peak of rise of the prices in France. Strong taxation of war implemented by Particelli d' Emery: the edict of Measured strike the constructions built illegally in the suburbs of Paris (March). The Taxe of Easy the touches the Parisian ones exempted of size (August), with the indignation of the Parliament.
- sugar exports of the Brésil reach 1 500 000 arrobas (1 arrobas = 14 kg).
- August 4th: Marie of Rabutin-Chantal wife the Marquis Henri de Sévigné.
Births in 1644
- August 6th: Louise of Vallière, with Turns.
- August 12th Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber, German musician
- August 16th: François-Timoléon de Choisy, future abbot, in Paris.
- Matsuo Munefusa, Poet Japan board known under the name of Basho
- Antonio Stradivari, main Italian violin maker
Death in 1644
March 1st: Frescobaldi, Italian organist (1583 -1644), creator of the principle of the tonal running away.
- April 25th: Chongzhen, last emperor of the Dynasty Ming, commits suicide whereas the Manchu ones of the Dynastie Qing invade Beijing.
- June 17th: João Poinsot (Jean of Saint-Thomas), Dominican, professor at the university of Alcala and confessor of Philippe IV of Spain (born in Lisbon in 1589).
- July 29th: Maffeo Barberini, pope under the name of Urbain VIII, known as Urbanus octavus .
- October 6th: Raymond de Laparre, French magistrate, prosecutor with the Parliament of Toulouse.
Be-X-old: 1644 Map-bms: 1644 Simple: 1644 Zh-classical: 一六四四年
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