This page relates to the year 1609 Gregorian Calendrier.
- July 28th: First English establishment with the Bermuda by shipwrecked men of the Sea Venture , on the way for the Virginia.
- August 28th: Henry Hudson reaches bay of Delaware. He asserts part of the North America for the United Provinces.
- September 2nd: reached bay of New York. It establishes a commercial counter with Staaten Eylandt.
- September 11th: The explorer Henry Hudson discovers the island of Manhattan and gives his name to the Hudson River which it explores the following days.
Creation of the republic of the Guaraní by the Jesuits with the Paraguay. The Jesuits obtain Philippe III of Spain the authorization to create reductions from 3000 to 8000 Indians for protected from the raids of slaves. He institute the social equality (neither rich person, neither the poor, neither money, nor wages), the leniency (not of capital punishment), work (culture of cereals, work of iron and weaving) and the defense of the indigenous culture. In the middle of the 17th century, Guaranis will be 35 000.
See also: Mission Jesuit of Paraguay
Beginning of the sugar industry in New Grenade.
- June 29th: Franco-Spanish Victoire on Tunis with the Battle of Goulette.
- massive Surge of immigrants Spanish Jewish Moslems and in Tunisia and with the Morocco following the decree of expulsion of the Morisque S of the April 4th.
- April 9th: The twelve years truce between the Spain and the United Provinces makes it possible the last to make sure control of the Southeast Asia vis-a-vis the English.
- the Compagnie Dutchwoman has receipt of the important positions: islands Amboine and Bandaged occupied, counter with Banten, treated friendships with many local princes, of which that of Makassar, agents with Borneo (diamonds). The guaranteed truce peace in the seas of Europe and releases part of the fleet for the control of the islands with spices. The shareholders touch substantial dividends (17% in 1605, 75% in 1606, 40% in 1607, 20% in 1609,50% in 1610).
- September 20th, Japan: The Compagnie Dutchwoman of the Eastern Indies opens a counter with Hirado. Dutchmen and English settle with Hirado (Kyūshū) to make trade (1609 - 1613).
- February 17th: Cosme II of Médicis becomes large-duke of Tuscany (fine in 1621).
- March 25th: Died without heirs to Jean-Guillaume, duke of Clèves, Berg and Juliers. The emperor Rodolphe II evokes the business in front of his court, the applicants intend himself not to present himself. The emperor sequesters the duchies and instructs the Spaniards with the Netherlands to occupy them ( July). The king of France opposes to the candidate Austria and seems decided with the war against the Spain.
- April 4th: The Morisque S, Moslems converted of force to Catholicism, are driven out of Spain by Philippe III. The departure of 275 000 people towards the Moslem East between 1609 and 1614 carries a very hard blow to the economy and especially to agriculture (the kingdom of Valence loses 30% of its population, the Aragon 20%).
- April 9th, Antwerp: Signature, thanks to a mediation of Pierre Jeannin for the king of France, of the Truce Twelve Years in the War Eighty Year old between the Spain and the United Provinces (Holland), which leads to a recognition in fact of the independence of those.
- July 9th: “ Majestät ”. Rodolphe II guaranteed freedom of worship in Bohemia.
- August 20th: Freedom of worship with the Protestants of Silesia.
- July 10th: Foundation of the catholic League of the German princes with Munich directed by Maximilien of Bavaria, in reaction to the evangelic Union.
- Christian IV of Denmark benefits from Swedish engagement in Russia (1609 - 1612) to attack Kalmar, Elfsborg (taken in 1611) and the new foundation of Gothenburg.
- Bubonic plague in Catalonia.
- February 18th:
- Agreements of Viborg between Basile Chouïski and the Sweden. The Russians give up their sights on the Livonie, and Charles IX of Sweden promises 5000 man sending to release Moscow.
- Failure of the plot of prince Gagarine against Chouïski. Other attempts fail in April and May.
- July: Victoire of Michel Skopine-Chouïski, nephew of the tsar, and the Swedes of Jacques of Gardie on the Cossacks of the Second forgery Dimitri meadows of Tver.
- September: Sigismond III of Poland breaks the truce and besieges Smolensk (fine in 1611). A conflict bursts between the Poles of the royal army and those of Sapieha to Touchino.
- Rebellion of the counties of the north of the Ireland. Beginning of the installation in Ulster of the English and Scottish Protestants. Political of establishment (colonization): 40 000 Protestant colonists establish in Ulster an economic and religious hegemony on the catholic Irishmen.
- In Ulster, after 1609, half of the grounds is confiscated and distributed in the form of piece not exceeding 3000 acres.
Introduction of the system of the Justice of the Peace in Scotland.
- the Portuguese merchants of London suspectés of Judaism are expelled of the country following internal quarrels.
- August: Sully raises new unpopular taxes to finance the war. Henri IV raises troops in Suisse.
- September 25th: the Day of the Counter lance the reform of Port-Royal by Mother Angelica Arnauld.
- November 29th: Condé removes his wife Charlotte de Montmorency towards the Netherlands to withdraw it from the sights of the king.
- Marie de Médicis requires to be crowned, but the king refuses.
- Lesdiguières becomes Marshal of France.
- Mission of the Jesuits near the Christians of the East.
Art & culture
- the painter and Italian engraver Guido Reni painted the Dawn .
- Rubens is with Antwerp. It paints the Portrait of the painter and his wife .
- Installations of the place of France with Paris. The death of the king will stop the project.
- Construction of the mosque of the sultan or “blue Mosque” with Istanbul (fine in 1617).
Science & technology
- Thomas Harriot observes the the Moon with a Lunette.
- May: Galileo learns the invention from the Lunette of approach in Holland; he improves it, and he is among the first to use it like Telescope for the observation of the Celestial body S in August.
- August 21st: the Senate of Venice examines the Telescope improved by Galileo.
Astronomia Nova of Johannes Kepler where it calculates the orbit of Mars and states two laws of the planetary movement: the first stipulates that the planets move according to elliptic orbits with the Sun, the second, or “regulates surfaces”, states that the imaginary line which one would trace between the Sun and a planet sweeps identical surfaces of an ellipse during equal time intervals.
Economy & company
- January 26th: Foundation of the Bank of Amsterdam, under the special guarantee and with acquiescment of the States of Holland. It is under the control of the municipality of the city which receives the monopoly of the exchange ( Wisselbank ). Thanks to its liberal policy of circulation of capital, it will become one of the first places banking of the world.
- Reduction in the Venetian fleet. The activity of the port, compensated by the foreign ships, is maintained.
- February 15th: Prohibition of the export of the money and gold currencies.
- the budget of the State at the end of the reign of Henri IV reaches 200 tons of money equivalent.
- Importation of iron of Catalonia towards Marseilles: arrival of 300 iron balloons of Collioure (May 2nd). The city also receives coal of Alès, which feeds its forging mills and is used for the heating.
Births in 1609
- June 29th: Pierre-Paul Riquet, engineer, with Béziers.
- March 22nd: Jean II Casimir Vasa, king of Poland († December 16th 1672)
- July 29th: Marie de Mantoue, noble Italian, wife of the duke Charles III of Mayenne († August 14th 1660, 51 years)
- October 19th: Giovanni Bona, cardinal and Italian writer. († October 28th 1674).
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
Death in 1609
- January 21st: Joseph Right Scaliger, humanistic resident of Agen protesting
- April 4th: Charles of the Lock, botanist (° 1525)
- July 15th: Annibal Carrache, Italian painter (° 1560)
- July 20th: Federigo Zuccaro, Italian painter mannerist (° 1542)
- August 7th: Eustace of Caurroy, type-setter (° 1549)
- August 20th: Joseph Duchesne, known as Quercetanus , French chemist born towards 1544.
- September 17th: Rabbi Judah Loew, known as Maharal, large Rabbi of Prague (° 1525)
- October 19th: Jacobus Arminius (Armenszonn Jacob), Dutch Protestant theologist (° 1560)
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Pierre Biard, sculptor
Be-X-old: 1609 Map-bms: 1609 Simple: 1609
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