This page relates to the year 1591 Gregorian Calendrier.
- the Colonie of Roanoke in North Carolina disappears.
- April 12th: The kingdom Songhaï is destroyed at the time of the Bataille of Tondibi, by an army Morocco groin ordered by the Pasha Djouder.
- the pasha Djouder reaches the Niger in March 1591. Its troop includes/understands only two or three thousand exhausted survivors. After having begun again forces and pushed back some attacks without danger, Djouder goes on Gao while skirting the river. It meets the Askia Ishak with Tondibi . The noise and the devastations caused by the firearms put in rout forty thousand warriors Songhaï (April 12th). Ishak II is folded up on Gao, then evacuates its capital which is occupied. It makes peace proposals in Djouder, which transmits them to the sultan of Morocco. Ahmed Al-Mansur Saadi pushes back them, sends another task force ordered by Mahmoud Ben Zergoun, caïd of European origin, and revokes Djouder which has just settled with Tombouctou.
- May 30th: Taken Tombouctou, the Empire Songhaï disappears.
- Mahmoud takes the command of the Moroccan army and attacks the army of the askia Ishak which is folded up in disorder (October 14th), and gives up the capacity with the askia Mohamed Gao. This one made of the peace proposals to the pasha Mahmoud, but is captured with its escort, then put at died by the Morrocans. The troops songhaï survivors proclaim askia a brother of Mohamed Gao, Nouh, beaten in its turn by the Morrocans. It is folded up towards the south (Dendi) and directs a guerilla loophole against the Morrocans and the askia Séliman indicated by the pasha.
- Calumniated by its close relations, Mahmoud cannot prevent the nomination of another pasha, Mansour. This one takes again the fight against Songhaï, but attracts itself the enmity of Djouder and dies poisoned.
the Mossi of the Yatenga resist the attacks of the Morrocans successfully. Those of Fada Gourma are not worried and maintain until the end of the 19th century a more or less loose authority on a kingdom which gathers many provinces independent from/to each other.
April 10th: The first English forwarding with the the Eastern Indies (end in 1594). Departure of Plymouth of the English navigator James Lancaster, the first British to reach the India while passing by the Cape of Good Hope.
- India: Akbar seizes the Sind. Salim, the son of Akbar, revolts against his/her father.
- Japan: Hideyoshi Toyotomi crushes its last enemies in the North-East of Japan and reunifies the country under its capacity.
- January: Beginning of the War of Rappen. The peasants of Basle-Countryside raised themselves with the advertisement of the increase in the taxes on the wine and the meat.
- May 15th: Died of the tsarévitch Dimitri (1583 -1591), which was to succeed his/her brother Fédor Ier, with Ouglitch. Boris Godounov is shown to have made it assassinate. In June, the Zemski sobor meets to examine the business. A board of inquiry is directed by Chouïski.
- June - July: Maurice de Nassau takes Zutphen and Deventer with the Spaniards.
- July 30th: Leghorn is declared free port by the large duke of Toscane Ferdinand Ier de Médicis. The liberal charter published for the foreign merchants attracts there the Marrane S Portuguese and Spanish of which prosperous community.
- September 14th: Maurice de Nassau takes Hulst
- September 24th, Affaire Antonio Pérez: During the transfer of Perez in the prison of the Enquiry (see 1590), the people of Saragossa raise themselves with the cries of “freedoms” ( fueros ), and tear off the prisoner with the inquisiteurs. The king, to muzzle the rebellion, raises the army of Castille. Large Lanuza Judge answers by the lifting of the militia of Aragon. The army of the king, victorious, seizes Saragossa. Lanuza is stopped, judged by the Enquiry for complicity of heresy, condemned to died and carried out the December 20th. Philippe II of Spain accentuates its control on the Aragon.
- October 21st: Maurice de Nassau takes Nimègue
- October 29th: Beginning of the Innocent Pontificate of IX (fine in 1592).
- December 24th: Philippe II of Spain publishes a general amnesty for revolted Aragon and guarantees the main part of the rights.
- Failure of an attempt of the Tartar against Moscow.
- the raids of the Russian populations by the Tartars of the Crimea, who sell them like slave on the market of Constantinople, is such as Giovanni Botero announce them like one of the causes of the weak settlement of the Russia.
- On the complaints of the sultan following exaction of the Cossacks Polish, the king of Poland, with the agreement of the barons of the Diet, agrees to offer to the Door “ cento timpani of zibellini ”, evaluated with 30 000 guilders. To regulate the expenditure, a tax of a guilder per capita is established for the year on the Jews of the kingdom.
- Riots anti-Protestant women with Cracow.
- Food shortage with Naples. The Université is closed and the students returned in their families.
- Continuation of fresh spring-summers, with late or very late grape harvest, of 1591 with 1597.
- January 3rd: “Day of the flours”, unfruitful attempt at Henri IV to return in Paris.
- Chartres goes to the king.
- Elisabeth Ire of England proposes its assistance to Henri IV and sends subsidies. 2400 English unloads with Paimpol and takes the control of part of the north of the Brittany.
- May 24th: Sir John Norreys takes Guingamp.
- June 3rd: The pope Gregoire XIV renews the excommunication of the king and extends it to all those which will support it. It causes to rejoin with the king good number of catholics gallicans, especially in the parliamentary mediums.
- July 4th: Edict of Mantes, giving into force those of Poitiers (1577) of Nérac (1579) and of Fleix (1580).
- August 17th: Catch of Boundary-line.
- November 11th: Beginning of the seat of Rouen, defended by the son of Charles de Mayenne and Villars.
- November 15th: To Paris, dissension and scission the chiefs of the catholic Ligue enters: Brisson, appointed first president of the court of Paris by the Sixteen is assassinated by those because of its moderation. Mayenne subjects the Sixteen by the force and makes hang four of them.
- September 17th: The duke of Lesdiguières, chief of the huguenots of the Dauphiné demolishes the duke Charles-Emmanuel Ier of Savoy to the Bataille of Pontcharra. Lesdiguières seizes Grenoble (January) and demolishes the duke of Savoy with Esparron (December) and with Beauvoisin (1592).
Art & culture
- William Shakespeare written Romeo and Juliette .
- Laments ( Complaints ), collection of short poems of Edmund Spenser.
- Astrophel and Stella , a succession of one hundred eight sonnets to sir Philip Sidney.
- Book of the preeminence of the French language , Henri Estienne.
- Psalms , of Philippe Desportes (1591 - 1603).
- the Handbook of Epictète of Guillaume of Squirrel fur.
- With the Morocco, the oulémas rise to see Al-Mansur organizing a forwarding against an already Islamized area.
- With the gold of the Songhaï, Al-Mansur is made build with Marrakech the Palais El Badi (“the incomparable one”).
Science & technology
Economy & company
By organizing a forwarding against the Songhaï, the sultan of Marrakech account to control the saltworks of Teghaza, to take possession of the gold reserves of the Sudan, and to perhaps move away from its capital the too influential chiefs of his army of mercenaries, made up of Andalusians and European Renegades. The Andalusians are the descendants of the Arabs and the Berber ones who took part in the conquest of Spain at the 8th century, or of the Spaniards converted at this time. The Renegades, of all nationalities (Italian, Greek, Armenian, French, Breton, English, Spanish), are prisoners sold to the sultan by the barbaresque pirates or of the adventurers. All must embrace the Islam.
- the sultan of Morocco Al-Mansur receives the nickname of El-Dehebi (Gilded) because of the gold which it receives from this forwarding.
Census in Spain: the north of the Castille account 10 cities of more than 10 000 inhabitants of which Valladolid (40 000), Segovia, Salamanque. The southern half 34 cities of which Seville (120 000), Tolède and Madrid.
England: Economic depression due to the enclosures, the cooling of the climate, inflation, overpopulation.
- Beginning of the prosperity of the Venetian stopover of Spalato in Dalmatie, with the result of the terrestrial roads of the Balkans, prosperity due to the devastations of the race against the maritime trade. The Venetian ones establish convoys protected from Spalato to Venice and build a new city. The Turks put in order the roads leading to Spalato and stop fixed dates for the caravans. Silks, aromatics, carpets, waxes, wools, skins, fabrics of cotton, etc arrive of the East. Venice sends its money and gold cloths. Ragusains, which competition the new connection, undertake a denigration campaign near the Turks (May 1593).
Births in 1591
- February 8th: Barbieri Giovan Francesco detto it Guercino, Italian painter, with Cento.
- March 31st: Francoise of the Tower, the first grand-daughter of Michel de Montaigne, one year and half before the death of the great writer.
Death in 1591
- April 21st: SEN No Rikyū, main Japanese of the Chanoyu (ceremony of the), with which one owes a great improvement of the esthetism and spiritual quality of the ceremony of the, and which influenced the majority of Japanese arts. (° 1522).
- December 14th: Jean of the Cross, mystical poet, reformer about the Carmelite friars and founder of the déchaux Carmelite friars. (° 1542).
- December 21st: Pedro Moya de Contreras, general inquisitor, archbishop of Mexico City and 6th viceroy of News-Spain. (° v. 1528).
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
Be-X-old: 1591 Map-bms: 1591 Simple: 1591
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