This page relates to the year 1576 Calendrier Julien.
- June 7th: Departure of the forwarding of the British Martin Frobisher with the research of the Passage of the North-West, along the southernmost coast of the Greenland. The July 28th it is for littoral of the Labrador. The August 11th, it reaches the bay which bears its name that it takes for a strait. It passes the Détroit of Davis. Believer to have discovered layer gold bearing (pyrite), it stops his voyage.
- Mexico: Epidemic of Variola killing more than two million Indians in the dioceses of Mexico City, Michoacán, Puebla and Oaxaca.
- Beginning of the reign of Abd el-Malik, emir Saadien of the Morocco (fine in 1578).
- Abd el-Malik, uncle of the emir saadien Mohammed el-Mottouakil, taken refuge to Constantinople, directs a forwarding against Morocco with the assistance of the Turks. El-Mottouakil is beaten and takes refuge in Spain.
- Abd el-Malik organizes Morocco which it equips with a powerful army. It enters in connection with the France, the England and the Spain. The friendly relations which it ties with Philippe II of Spain oblige El-Mottouakil to gain the Portugal, of which it convinces king Sebastien to invade Morocco.
Asia & Indian world
- Countryside of Akbar for the annexation of the Bengal and the Bihar in India.
- Akbar works out a true ritual of court. With Fathpûr-sîkrî, its new capital, its appearances in public are programmed and it treacherous the go concern in a hall open to all (ceremony of the darbar).
- Akbar makes many administrative reforms and takes measures in favor of the peasants.
The close East
- victorious Campaigns of the Othoman against the Persian (fine in 1590).
- January 28th: Christophe Bathory (1530 - 1581) becomes prince of Transylvania.
- May 1st: Crowning of Etienne ('' Stefan '') Batory, king de Pologne, with Cracow. He marries Anne Jagellon the same day.
- Maximilien of Austria, elected king de Pologne by the tycoons and proclaimed king by the primacy, cannot take possession of the kingdom (he dies the October 12th). Etienne Ier Báthory, prince of Transylvania, elected thanks to Jan Zamoyski and the sklachta, must fight Dantzig, refractory with his election (1576 - 1577). Jan Zamoyski is named chancellor.
- Etienne Báthory continues the tolerant policy of Jagellons with regard to the Juifs but supports the catholic reaction against the reformed Churches.
- Wishing to engage the fight against Moscow, Etienne Báthory reorganizes the army, up to that point reduced with three thousand men hardly. It engages of the riders to fight against the Tatars. Jan Zamoyski, named large hetman, organizes the infantry by recruiting peasants of the royal field which it arms with the Hungarian woman. The war lasts of 1577 with 1586.
- November 2nd:
- Beginning of the reign of Rodolphe II, Germanic Roman Emperor. Its court settles with Prague (fine in 1611). Rodolphe II, high in Spain, mark its preference for religious matter Catholicism. He refuses to renew the Declaratio Ferdinandea which supplemented the Paix of Augsburg.
- Ernest de Habsbourg, brother of Rodolphe II, reign on the Austria (fine in 1595).
- Wratislaw Hradec becomes chancellor of the empire.
- Rodolphe II, king of Hungary, imposes the Counter-Reformation in royal Hungary.
- Plague in Italy (1576 - 1579). Plague with Milan (1576 - 1577). The bishop Charles Borromée organizes the help with the pestiferous ones.
- the Russian start to be spread beyond the mounts of the the Ural.
- the Dutch Provinces are linked against the Spain.
- March 4th: The death of Réqueséns leaves the Netherlands without governor until the arrival of Don Juan in November. The the Council of the disorders and the taxes new are abolished without results. The States of Holland, Zealand and the Brabant sit permanently and the General states, joined together with their request, sit on their side. The states of the Brabant, which seek a sovereign, address to the duke François d' Alençon, brother of king de France. The General states make the same proposal with the archduke Mathias, wire of the emperor.
- July 2nd: The Spanish troops seize the port of Zierikzee, but the very same day, the soldiers leave the city in direction of the south decided well to treat to on the country the arrears of balances. Aalst, close to Brussels, is put at bag, and the south of the Netherlands revolts in its turn against the foreign occupant. The states of the the Brabant issue the arrest of the members of the Council of State. The faithful ones of the king themselves, carried out by the duke of Aerschot, take their distance with respect to the policy of Madrid.
- November 3rd: The Spanish Tercio S mutinés enter Antwerp. Beginning of the Spanish Fury.
- the general states pronounce the setting out the laws of the soldiers mutineers who put Antwerp at bag the November 4th (8000 dead).
- Don Juan of Austria becomes governor of the Netherlands (fine in 1578). The November 8th, it must ratify the Pacification of Ghent which gives to Guillaume Silent the the stathoudérat of seventeen provinces and puts an end to religious intolerance. The foreign troops must leave the country, and an amnesty is granted to revolted.
- February: Henri de Navarre manages to flee of the court. It gives up Catholicism and takes again the head of the army huguenote. Philippe Duplessis-Mornay (1549-1623) becomes his main thing adviser and its ambassador.
- May 7th: Edict of Beaulieu. Henri III of France approaches the moderate party of the policies (or Malcontents). He signs the peace of Mister (in homage to François d' Alençon), of Beaulieu or Loach (advantages to the Protestant chiefs, freedom of worship safe in Paris, places of safety in midday, allowances with the victims of the Saint Barthelemy, creation of rooms of justice semi-parts). This peace, considered humiliating by the catholics (May 7th), at the origin of the Ligue (June), is initially formed in Picardy (the governor of Fibula, the local nobility and three regional orders want to prevent the introduction of Condé in his government of Picardy) and in Brittany, then extended to all the country.
- June: Formation of the “Holy League” with Paris by the duke of Own way.
- the policies endeavor to maintain, where they order, the political unit at the price of religious diversity (the catholic governor of Languedoc, Montmorency-Damville, succeeds in by an agreement with the Protestants guaranteeing peace).
- September 7th: the Parlement of Paris takes a solemn stop, the Mabile stop, which recognizes like Française a girl born in England of two French parents.
- December 6th: Meeting of the General states, to Blois, which inspire the Ordinance of Blois of 1579 (end in March 1577), condemn the Protestant heresy. They impose the inalienability of the royal field.
- Pomponne de Bellièvre becomes president of the Parlement of Paris.
Religion & philosophy
February: The Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno flees of the order Dominicain of Naples to avoid a lawsuit about charges relating to doctrinal questions and starts his peregrinations. He goes to Geneva (1576), with Toulouse, Paris and London (1583 - 1586).
- April 14th: The pope Gregoire XIII condemns the primacy of Espagnes, the theologist Bartolomé Carranza to abjure sixteen proposals and with being private of sound évêché during five years. Carranza dies shortly after (May 2nd).
- Jean III of Sweden is influenced by the ideas of Georges Cassander (1513 - 1566) concerning the meeting of the Churches around a profession of faith joining together the essential points by the way of which all the Christians agree. It imposes on the Swedish Church a new book of liturgy, the Red book, in which appear the tendencies irenicists of the sovereign. The Lutherans worry about this starter of questioning of the religion of State, more especially as they feel badly protecteds against preaching calvinist or a catholic restoration (the pope Gregoire XIII sends missions directed by the Jesuit Antonio Possevino to Eastern Europe). It is claimed that the king would have become catholic.
Jean Bodin publishes the Six Books of the Republic (theory of the absolutism).
Arts & cultures
- India: Akbar creates a new city with Fathpûr-sîkrî close to Agra. It traces itself the basic plan of the city, built in terraces and round towards Mecque. It will be abandoned at the end of fifteen years.
- Akbar inaugurates the art of the Miniature and protects the well-read men.
- the “ Theater ”, first room of theater public is opened with London by the actor James Burbage.
- Loves and Nouveaux Exchanges of invaluable stones , Remi Belleau.
- most excellent buildings of France , collection of engravings of the architect Jacques Androuet of the Hoop.
- the Congrégation of the Holy Office quotes Véronèse to appear before it for a table representing the Cène. It is renamed the Meal at Levi (cf 1571)
Sciences & Technology
- Speech on the discovery of a North-western passage towards Cathay , of Sir Humphrey Gilbert.
- the Astronome Danish Tycho Brahé builds the observatory of Uraniborg on the island of Hven close to Copenhagen to the Denmark (fine in 1584).
Births in 1576
- Alix the Clerk, religious Frenchwoman, béatifiée in 1947 by Pie XII († 1622).
- Marie de Valence, catholic French († 1648).
Death in 1576
- January 19th: Hans Sachs, playwright and German poet (born in 1496).
- August 28th: Tiziano Vecellio, known as Titien, Italian painter, with Venice. * October 12th: Maximilien II.
- September 21st: Jerome Cardan joint, with Rome, philosopher, doctor and mathematician (born in 1501). It has establishes an algebraic theory of the equations ( Ars magna sive of regulis algebraicis liber unus , 1545). He invents the device of articulation with free movement which bears its name to return the Boussole insensitive with the movement of the boats.
Liu Chi, painter Chinese decorator (born in 1496).
Be-X-old: 1576 Map-bms: 1576
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