This page relates to the year 1556 Calendrier Julien.
- Mars: The Greek corsair Dragut is installed by the Turks with Tripoli of Cruelty in the place of the expelled Chevaliers of Malta five years earlier.
- July: Dragut cature a Venetian ship with Lampedusa.
- December: Dragut seizes Gafsa.
- Salah Ray, “king” of Algiers lance a forwarding in the the Sahara until Ouargla to get gold.
- Died of the beylerbey of Algiers Salah Ray of the Plague. After one year of anarchy and plot, the sultan of Istanbul indicates again Hassan Pasha, wire of Aldine Khayr (fine in 1567). This one restores the order, invades part of the Morocco whose sovereign at summer assassinated by the Turks (1557) and crushes the Spanish army of the count d' Alcaudète.
- January 23rd (or February 2nd): Gigantic Earthquake in the China, worst of all times, makes more 830 000 victims (Shaanxi, Gansu, Shanxi).
- February 14th: Beginning of the reign of Akbar the Large one which becomes emperor Moghol of the India, (end in 1605).
- Akbar, too young person to succeed his father Humayun reign under the supervision of the sultan of the Bihâr Adham Khan (fine in 1561) and of sound atabek Bayram Khan.
- November 5th: Akbar is victorious with the Second battle of Pânipat against the Hindus directed by Himou, skilful minister of Muhammad Adil which is killed in the battle, perhaps by Akbar itself under the council of Bayram.
- India: The sultan of Cambay must give up the territory of Daman with the profit of the Portuguese.
- Famine in India.
- Be dry. Early grape harvest in the north of France (September 1st). Fires in the forest Norman. Bad harvests. Agricultural crisis in France of North.
- Winter 1556 - 1557 very hard in the South of France. The the Rhone freezes close to Arles (December 4th).
January 16th: Abdication of Charles Quint (V) in favor of his son Philippe II of Spain which becomes king of Spain and reigns on the Netherlands and the Italy (fine in 1598). Charles Quint withdraws itself with the monastery of Yuste, in Castille.
- February 5th: Truce of Vaucelles, concluded for five years between Charles Quint and Henri II from France, but which lasts only five months. Corsica Metz, , Savoy and Piedmont is recognized in France. It puts an end to the operations in Italy.
- March 14th: Ferdinand Ier takes the Germanic title of emperor without to be crowned by the Pape.
- March 21st: Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury is burned alive. At the time of the accession to the throne of England of the catholic Marie Tudor (1553), it had supported that of Jane Grey. He is blamed for his perfidy and is judged heretic (he denied the Transsubstantiation).
- April 30th: The pope Paul IV withdraws all the letters of protections which its predecessors had granted the Portuguese community Marrane of Ancône (1547) and orders to start continuations against it. In a succession of autos-da-fe in spring, 25 people are burned alives, 26 others are sent to the galères Malta (they will find freedom), 30 escape from prison before their lawsuit by pouring a bribe to the pontifical police chief.
- Be: Appearance of the forgery Martin War.
- June 27th: Jean III of Sweden becomes duke of Finland.
- July 28th: Gattières, enclave foreign on Right Bank of the VAr, become in 1338 the Eastern border of France, is occupied by the French.
- September 12th: Beginning of the reign of Ferdinand Ier, Germanic Roman Emperor (fine in 1564, elected on March 24th 1558).
- September: Resumption of the war in the Papal States. The pile cluster seizes Anagni. Following the Spanish invasion of the Papal States, François de Guise is sent in Italy to help the pope (1557).
- November: Rupture of the Truce of Vaucelles.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- France: An edict of the king Henri II of France founds the offices of appraisers salesmen of pieces of furniture (ancestors of the auctioneers).
- Hungary: The king Jean Sigismond is recalled by the Diet of Transylvania. He controls under the Turkish supervision and its capacity is limited by the orders of the “three nations”, but he manages to consolidate the princely capacity. He converts with the unitarian Protestantism.
- Holy Empire: Ferdinand creates the council aulic of the war ( Hofkriegsrat ) from which competence extends to all monarchy.
- Arrived of the Jesuits at Prague.
- Philippe II of Spain approves the statutes of purity of blood promulgated in 1547.
- Constitution with Devreczen of a center of diffusion calvinist with the preacher Martin Kalmancsehi who converted, amongst other things, clergy of Klausenburg (Cluj).
- Sigismond II of Poland gives up intervening in the “businesses of property” of noble Polish, who controls their peasants ( chlopi ).
- the Astrakhan is annexed by the Russians after the victory of Ivan IV over the Mongolian . Russia obtains an access to the Caspian Sea and controls the totality of the course of the the Volga.
- the Ciscaucasie is annexed until the Terek. The princes tatars convert with Christianity and the mosques become Église.
- the qân Iedighêr of Siberia recognizes vassal Ivan the Terrible.
- an ordinance regularizes the system of ground remuneration of the servants of the tsar: in exchange of his service, the civil servant receives a field ( pomestie ) that it preserves his life during.
- Forwarding of English Jenkinson: it descends the the Volga until Astrakan and joined the Perse. England thus tries to circumvent the Turkish monopoly with the trade of Raising (1556 - 1581).
Arts & cultures
- July 26th: Opening in France of the college Jesuit of Balk by Mgr of Prat.
- the order of the Jésuites account already 1000 members (including 300 in the Iberian peninsula) and manages a hundred foundations in all Europe. It is the most dynamic element of the Counter-Reformation. Jacques Lainez becomes Préposé general of the Society of Jesus (fine in 1565).
- the Jesuit Pierre Canisius is named by Ferdinand Ier preacher of the court. He writes a catechism on the basis of decision of the Concile of Thirty.
- Russia: Drafting of the Domostroï (Ménagier).
- the Anthems , of Ronsard (1555 -1556).
- has Treasure Shorts off politic power , of English John Ponet, who exposes the duty of revolt of the people vis-a-vis the absolutism.
- the Crowning of the emperor Frederic Barberousse , painting of the Tintoret.
Sciences and technology
- Edition with Basle of the treaty on the mine and the metallurgy Of Re metallica , Georgius Agricola ( Georg Bauer ).
- Of rebus mathematicis, hactenus desideratis , of Oronce Fine where he claims to solve the problem of the Quadrature of the circle, which is highly criticized.
Economy & company
- the Indies count 100 million inhabitants.
- Charles Quint borrowed nearly 16 billion maravédis during its reign: 1/3 of 1516 with 1541, 1/3 of 1543 with 1551 and 1/3 of 1552 with 1556. 6,6 billion comes from Italy (of which the half after 1552), 4,87 of Germany, 2,2 of Spain, 1 of Flanders and 1,2 of Antwerp. The accumulated debt represents 10 years of tax re-entries. Its increase after 1543 and 1551 is revealing political and military difficulties.
Births in 1556
Death in 1556
- March 21st: Thomas Cranmer (born in 1489).
- June 10th: Martin Agricola, German type-setter, with Magdeburg (born in 1486).
- July 2nd: François of Montmorency-Laval, religious French, bishop of Fraud of 1528 at 1556.
- July 31st: Ignace de Loyola, founder of the Jesuit S, at the 65 years age.
- September 20th: Adolphe X of Holstein, archbishop of Cologne. (° 1515).
- October 21st: Pietro Aretino known under the name of Pierre Arétin (1492 - 1556), writer and Italian playwright, author of licencieux tales, in Venice.
- November 14th: Giovanni Beyond Put (1503 -1556), Italian author of Galateo , one of the first treaties of good manners.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
Be-X-old: 1556 Map-bms: 1556 Simple: 1556
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