This page relates to the year 1554 Calendrier Julien.
- January 25th, Brazil: foundation of São Paulo (then Piratininga), in the south of El Salvador, from which the Jésuite S will undertake évangéliser the Indians of the interior of the territory.
- the Jesuits undertake a social philosopher's stone: fight against the concubinat and for the regular families, assistance with the prisoners, the patients, the old men, the poor, the orphans, preventive action and curative against the epidemics, development of the pharmacy and the medical use of the American plants. They found aldeas , communities Indian living under their protection. Supported by the king, the Jesuits are in hillock with the attacks of the colonists with whom they remove a cheap labor thus.
- January: Offensive of the Araucan S with the Chile, directed by Caupolican, adviser by Colocolo and the young person Lautaro. Six hundred combatants of elites, supported by thousands of auxiliaries, walk towards North. The city of Valdivia resists, but Concepción must capitulate after the battle of Marihueñu (February 23rd). Francisco de Villagra defends the course of the Bio Bio and Lautaro is killed while trying to cross the river (April 1st 1557). Caupolican is then restricted to defend its border, launching some sporadic raids in the north of Bio Bio.
- January, Morocco: The Turks counteract the attacks of the Saadiens and occupy Fès. As the different ones burst between Turks and Wattasides, the Saadien Mohammed ech-Sheik can take again the city with the end of the year. To prevent a new attack of the Turks, it installs his capital with Marrakech and made alliance with the Spaniards of Oran.
- Fine of the dynasty `Abdalwadide in Algeria. Algeria becomes a regency depending on the Ottoman Empire.
- Salah Ray, beylerbey of Algiers, enters to Fès but cannot there be maintained. It also seizes Vélez and Bougie, but its death in 1556 stops the operations against Oran.
- India: With died of the Afghan sultan Salim Shah, his son, a child, is assassinated by his maternal uncle, Mubariz, which seizes the throne of Delhi under the name of Muhammad Adil Shah. Torn by the quarrels of the aristocratic clans, the Empire bursts in three rival kingdoms.
- Othoman Forwarding against Surat in India.
- Seat of Bahrain by the Othoman .
- January: A galère and boats charged with flours are run by the storm between Marseilles and Rome.
- May 14th: Auto-da-fe of Murcie.
- July 12th, Spain: Regency of Jeanne, girl of Charles Quint and widow of a infant of Portugal (fine in 1558).
- August 2nd:
- Victoire of allied Florence to the empire against His and the French with Scannagallo (Marciano).
- First meeting with Rennes of the Parliament of Brittany.
- August 12th: Victoire of François de Guise with Renti in Italy with the help of Paul III.
- Edict setting up the marshals of France, which in addition to their military functions hold a court and are responsible for the courts of the provosts of the constabulary and the troops placed at their disposal.
the Jesuits, under the direction of Pierre Canisius are devoted to the “recatholicisation” of the Germany. Pierre Canisius writes a catechism ( Summa doctrinae christianae ) widespread in all Christendom.
- Index of Leuwen and Censure general Bible S in Spain.
- Poland: First synod calvinist with Somniski, close to Cracow. It is estimated that 20% of noble Polish are converted with the Calvinisme. They name pastors, control the dîme, organize schools.
- Russia: Adoption by the synod of disciplinary texts, Stoglav (hundred chapters), which reform in-depth Russian Church in a strictly orthodoxe direction. These texts will become the reference of the opponents to the religious reforms of the tsars.
- the catholic restoration starts under the reign of Marie Ire of England.
January 25th: With the advertisement of the marriage of Marie Tudor with the son of Charles Quint, to sir Thomas Wyatt causes a rebellion of 4000 men in the Kent which fails of little. Overcome with London, it is carried out with Edouard Courtenay while refusing to compromise Elisabeth.
- February 12th: Marie Tudor makes carry out Jeanne Grey and her husband Guilford Dudley, wire of John Dudley.
- March 17th: Elisabeth is locked up with the Tour of London. The Protestants are persecuted. The duke of Norfolk, uncle of Catherine Howard is carried out.
- April 11th: Execution of Thomas Wyatt.
- July 25th: the future Philippe II of Spain wife Marie Tudor, Queen of England (1553 - 1558). It remains in England of July 1554 to August 1555. England is involved in the war of the Habsbourg against the Valois.
- November: The Parliament grants the meeting of the Church of England with Rome. But he refuses to punish those which do not attend the mass or to restore the monasteries.
Arts & culture
- Creation of the college Jesuit of São Paulo, with the Brazil.
- Opening of the first coffee of Europe to Constantinople.
- Firstly libro di Messe : Giovanni Palestrina dedicates its mass to the pope Jules III.
- Michel de Montaigne becomes one of the eleven advisers of the Cour of the Assistances of Périgueux.
- '' El Lazarillo de Tormès '', first picaresque novel in prose, allotted to Hurtado de Mendoza.
- John Foxe, exiled with Basle, writes the “ Livre of the Martyrs ” (fine in 1559).
Sciences & technology
- December 8th: Ambroise Paré obtains the title of doctor in Chirurgie.
- Treated Agriculture of Charles Estienne.
Economy & company
- 30 000 inhabitants with Marseilles.
Births in 1554
James Lancaster, British navigator.
Death in 1554
- February 12th: Lady Jeanne Grey, former Queen of England
- February 21st: Hieronymus Bock says Tragus, botanist German (° 1498).
- March 3rd: Jean Frederic of Saxony (1503-1554)
- December 22nd: Alessandro Bonvicino, Italian painter of the Venetian school of the period of the Rebirth. (° 1498).
Be-X-old: 1554 Map-bms: 1554 Simple: 1554
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