This page relates to the year 1553 Calendrier Julien.
- January 25th: the viceroy Luis of Velasco inaugurates the royal and pontifical Université of Mexico City.
- July 25th: Foundation of Santiago del Estero, in Argentinian.
- December 25th, Chile: Victoire of Araucans to the Battle of Tucapel.
- the Araucan S indicate as chief Caupolicán and attack the fort of Tucapel. Pedro de Valdivia, believer with a simple skirmish, goes on the fort besieged with about thirty riders and some back-up troops Indian. It finds the fort burnt and its massacred garrison. Attacked by Araucans, the Spaniards are decimated except for their chief and of the Poza father, who will die of the continuations of horrible tortures.
- the succession of Valdivia proves to be difficult. Finally, the Aguirre captains and Villagra are indicated respectively to hold the north and the south of Chile, while Quiroga defends Santiago.
- Araucans, advised by Lautaro, old yanacona (servant) of Valdivia knew to seize horses to use them against the Spaniards.
- Construction of a second rampart to protect the southern suburbs of Beijing and the Temple from the Sky, devastated by the Mongols in 1550. It delimits the external city, which measures 8 km out of 3.
The Middle East
- November 6th: Died with Aktapa of the crown prince Mustafa (38 years), wire of the Othoman sultan Soliman the Magnificent the, carried out on order of his/her father who had taken note of a false letter of his son to the shah of Perse, asking him his assistance to reverse it.
- January 2nd: Failure of Charles Quint and his 60 000 men with the seat of Metz (1552 -1553) against François de Guise (known as the gash, 1519 - 1563).
- Mars: edict of creation of the Parliament of Brittany.
- July 9th: Battle of Sievershausen. Maurice of Saxony, victorious of the margrave of Brandebourg, two days after, of the continuations of its wounds.
- October 27th: With Champel, close to Geneva, Swiss, Michel Servet is burned like adversary of the reformed doctrines.
- Occupation partial of the Corsica by the French (1553 - 1556). Sampiero Corso unloads in the island with the head of a free-Turkish alliance.
- Execution by the fire of “new Christians” with Evora, the Portugal.
- April: Publication of the Forty-two articles which specify the faith Anglican: the priest becomes simply a Minister for the word, any more vestment does not carry and celebrates the eucharistie without references to the transsubstantiation. The belief in the purgatory is rejected, as well as the worships related on the images, the relics or the pilgrimage. The articles on the justification by the faith and predestination are inspired by Calvin.
- May 15th: Jane Grey wife Guilford Dudley.
- July: Jane Grey, then Marie Tudor (Bloody Mary, 1516-1558), queens of England.
- With died of Edouard VI of England (July 6th), the archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer, which had been committed respecting the will of Henri VIII, according to which the death tax returned to Marie Tudor, reaches at the request of Edouard VI, made on his bed of death, aiming at making crown Jane Grey, back-small-girl of Henri VII, who remains queen during nine days (10 with the July 19th). The sister of Edouard, Marie Tudor manages to make recognize her rights to the detriment of Jeanne Grey (July 15th). She enters to London the August 3rd and is crowned in October. Marie restores Catholicism and marries the future Philippe II of Spain to general reprobation (July 27th 1554).
- August 23rd: Marie Tudor makes carry out Dudley.
- the cardinal Reginald Pole, archbishop of Canterbury, legate of the Holy See, controls with Marie Tudor.
- the Communities Marrane S with London and Bristol-board. They are made pass for refugees calvinists come from the continent and some will have to leave the England in 1555.
- Political crisis caused by the disease of the tsar. Thinking of its succession, it makes lend oath to his son, but his/her first cousin, prince Vladimir, calls upon his rights to the throne and involves with him part of the boyards. Sylvestre and Adachev themselves seem to hesitate.
English Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor, charged to discover a passage by the North-East towards the the Far East, circumvents the Northern Cape and touches Arkhangelsk. Richard Chancellor makes shipwreck in White Mer (Arkhangelsk) and is brought to Moscow ( August). A wax trade, oils whale, furs, flax, hemp, teeth of seals, wood, cods against cloths and money is organized quickly with the England.
Art & culture
- January 25th: Innauguration of the university of Mexico City (Foundation the September 21st 1551).
- Foundation of the college Jesuit of Bahia, with the Brazil.
- Observation of the singularities , of the traveller Belon oyster of Mans, which reports its voyage in the Ottoman Empire.
- Discovered Bible of Wulfila, first translation with the use of the Goths (6th century).
- Edition of the Bible of Ferrare, first edition supplements in Latin and Hebrew, by the Marranes Duarte Pinel (Samuel Usque) and Geronimo de Vargas (Yom Tov Ben Levi Athias).
- Following a quarrel between the Venetian editors Giustiniani and Bragadini (1549), the pope Paul IV prohibits all new edition of the Talmud and makes seize in the Papal States all the lately diffused Hebraic books, which are burned on one to rough-hew the September 9th, day of Rosh Hashana, in Campo dei Fiori of Rome.
Economy & company
- Series of late grape harvest and poor quality in the Rhenish vineyard consecutive at cold summers (1553 - 1602).
- June: Invasion of grasshoppers with Vérone.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Coming from America, the Tabac is introduced for the first time in Europe, via the Spain.
- Michel Servet discovers the small blood circulation.
Births in 1553
- April 30th: Louise of Lorraine, queen of France of 1575 with 1589 († 1601)
- May 14th: Marguerite de France, known as the Queen Margot
- July 15th: Ernest de Habsbourg, future governor of Belgium, wire of the emperor Maximilien II and of Marie of Spain.
- November 23rd: Prospero Alpini, Italian botanist († 1617)
- December 13rd: Henri III of Navarre, future Henri IV, king de France.
Death in 1553
- July 6th: Edouard VI, king d' Angleterre.
- July 9th: Maurice of Saxony at the time of a campaign against the Brandebourg.
- October 16th: Lucas Cranach Old the, painter and German engraver, celebrates for his portraits, its naked female and its theological subjects inspired of the Réforme.
- November 6th: Mustafa Khan (38 years), crown prince, wire of the Othoman sultan Soliman the Magnificent the.
- October 7th: Cristóbal de Morales, Spanish type-setter (v. 1500 - v. 1553).
- October 30th: Jacques Sturm de Sturmeck, Alsatian politician (1489-1553), founder of the protesting gymnasium with Strasbourg.
Be-X-old: 1553 Map-bms: 1553 Simple: 1553
|Random links:||Paléo Nyon Festival | Eugene Christophe | Texas of the East | Yoggi | Automobile Grand Prix of Switzerland 1953 | Machine_à_état_défini|