This page relates to the year 1540 Calendrier Julien.
- Spanish Francisco Vásquez de Coronado goes up the Río Grande. It explores the Arizona and the New Mexico (fine in 1542).
- From Zuñi, Coronado sends detachments to prospect the area. Some reach the Kansas. One of them, ordered by Lopez de Gardenas, discovers the Large Canyon Colorado. Coronado sets out again in 1542. On its return to the Mexico, it must subdue the rebellion of the Indians of the Zacatecas, with the assistance of Pedro de Alvarado, which dies killed by the Indians the July 4th 1541.
the France gives its Canadian territories to Jean-François of Rocque Roberval.
- January, Chile: Pedro de Valdivia brings together with difficulty 150 Spanish soldiers, some craftsmen and a thousand of Indian. He carries horses, cattle, bags of seeds and branches of fruit trees. He leaves the Peru with the beginning of the year and succeeds without encumbers to cross the desert of Atacama to reach the Gran Valle fertile, then joined the ocean with Valparaiso.
- Mars: Arrived to Spain of Bartolomé de Las Put, which denounces the cruelty of the White towards the Indians of America.
- August 15th: Pizarro founds Arequipa with the Peru.
- Echec of the German company of the Welser in its attempt at colonization of the Venezuela, where one had found pearls, carried out by Nikolaus Federmann.
- Commercial relation between the Portugal and the Cochinchine.
- the Turks Yakoutes, originating in the Lake Baïkal, invade the Siberia.
- Humâyûn, wire of Bâbur is rejected out of the India North by the Afghan sultan Sher Shâh Sûrî (fine in 1545).
- Humayun tries an offensive against Sher Shah Suri but its army is demolished close to Kanauj (May 17th). Driven out from India of north, it will seek refuge in Perse. The Séfévide Chah Tamasp accepts to help it insofar as it converts with the Chiisme.
- Sher Shah Suri attacks Gakkar of the Panjab, but must subdue the rebellion of the governor of the Bengal.
- Sher Shah Suri managed to overcome the Moghol S after having founded in its army a levelling military discipline. It mobilizes enormous resources and manages to increase the Empire.
- Sher Shah Suri divides his states into districts controlled by officers depending directly on him. It makes build a new city with Delhi and reorganizes finances (abolition of the vexatious taxes and interior customs). It associates the Hindu civils servant with the administration. Its land reforms are still at the base of the current system. It makes build roads.
- the Jesuit François-Xavier is sent to the the Indies by the pope, inaugurating the expansion missionary of the order.
- Arrived of the Jesuits at Goa, followed first destruction of temples and the first conversions imposed to the Brahmans.
The Middle East & Arab World
- the Turkish troops seize the Kurdistan and progress by the Georgia towards the Black Sea and by the Arménie towards the Caspienne.
- September 2nd: Died of the Négus David II, pursued by Ahmed Gragne, with the monastery of Debra-Damo. Claudius (Galawdewos) becomes négus of Ethiopia (fine in 1559).
- Benefitting from its naval military superiority Spain occupies the island of Alboran in Marocain territory.
- January 4th: Parliament of Örebro in Sweden: Gustav Vasa rejects the principle of the elective monarchy and makes specify the rules of the succession.
- January 21st - June 5th: Guerra LED Salts , war tax of the pope against Perugia. The city loses its municipal freedoms.
- February 14th - May 12th: Repression of the Revolt of the Ganteses, overpowered taxes by Charles Quint. Charles Quint enters Ghent with an army, removes the privileges of the city and the jurandes, destroyed the fortifications.
- September: Attempt on Gibraltar of the of Algiers corsairs.
- September 20th: First Auto-da-fe with Lisbon, followed from 107 until in 1569.
- October 11th: Charles Quint gives the nomination of the Milanais to his/her son, the future Philippe II. The claims of François Ier are ridiculed.
- January 6th - July 9th: Failure of the marriage of Henri VIII of England with Anne de Clèves (1515 - 1557), repudiated at the end of six months, which cause the death sentence of Thomas Cromwell, instigator of the marriage, for high treason (July 28th).
- June 10th: Arrest of Thomas Cromwell. The archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer directs the religious policy after the disgrace of Cromwell.
- July 28th:
- January: François Ier and Charles Quint makes a solemn entry with Paris marking the truce between Valois and Habsbourg.
- April: François Ier refuses the advances of Charles Quint which proposes to him to give up the Milanais against various pledges with the Netherlands.
- June: Edict of Fontainebleau in repression against reformed.
- August 30th: Early grape harvest in the north of the France.
- Renewal of Swiss alliance.
- Tax pressure on the incomes of the clergy.
Central Europe & Balkans
- Venice loses Monemvasia and Nauplie in Morée.
- Rebirth of the Greek educational movement under the influence of the patriarchate of Constantinople.
- Beginning of the reign of Jean Sigismond, king de Hongrie (fine in 1571), wire of Jean Zapolyai and Isabelle Jagellon, girl of the king of Poland. Born the July 7th 1540, he is elected king of Hungary by the partisans of his father in spite of the treaty of Nagyvárad. He settles with Buda, which is then besieged by Ferdinand de Habsbourg.
- the archbishop of Vienna calls the Jésuites in Austria.
- Arrived of the Jesuits at the Portugal. They are seen entrusting the responsibility for the Saint-Anthony college of Lisbon, then that of the college of Arts of Coimbra.
- Persecution of the Reform by Charles Quint (1540 - 1544).
- the the Holy Office institutes with the Portugal the preventive Censure which is entrusted to three Dominicain S. the effectiveness of the censure causes the brutal stop of all research in the field of the ideas, sciences and arts.
- Pierre d' Alcantara (1499 - 1562) founds the order of the minorists of the strict observance.
- Creation with Milan of a special subcommittee charged to intercept in Italy the new Portuguese Christians on the way towards the Raising. Jean of Foix, person in charge in Lombardy, is characterized by its cruelty towards the fugitive ones which falls between its hands.
- Conferences of Haguenau, Worms and Ratisbon (1540 - 1541) between Protestants, who do not end to the religious unit.
- the calvinist Guillaume Farel is established with Neuchâtel, makes adopt a profession of faith and organizes the Church.
- Macaire writes a Calendar of the saints (official calendar of the Russian Church until the time of Pierre Large the).
Arrived at Safed, into High Galileo, of the Séfarade Josef Ben Ephraïm Caro, which completes its great started talmudic compilation with Andrinople, the Bethe Josef (“the House of Joseph”). He writes of it a summary, the Shunter Arukh (“the Been useful Table”). Born in 1488 in Spain, it dies in Safed in 1575.
Arts & cultures
the Négus Claudius makes build the church of Tedbaba-Maryam (Platform of Marie) and writes the Confession of Claude , by whom he answers those which show it to lean secretly towards Catholicism.
- Work of Embaqôm (Habacuc), commercial Moslem converted with Christianity into Ethiopia, where it reaches the dignity of Etchagué (chief of the monasteries). Author of Anqasa Amin (Door of the faith), where it justify his conversion and fight the Islam, translator of the Byzantine novel Barlaam and Josaphat .
- the sculptor and Italian goldsmith Cellini resides in France at the invitation of François Ier (fine in 1545).
- Construction of the Castle of Valençay.
- Philibert Delorme builds the castle of Saint-Maur-of-Ditches for the cardinal of Bellay.
- With died of Rosso Fiorentino, Primatice is in charge of the work management of the Château of Fontainebleau, dealing as well with architecture as of decorations of festivals. The king entrusts the responsibility to him to bring back Italy of the ancient copies of sculptures. On its return in France, Primatice works with Nicolò dell' Abbate and carries out with him the decoration of the ballroom and the gallery of Ulysses. It carries out with Fontainebleau a great illustrating number of stuccos as well as creations of the scenes of inspiration mythological and intended for the apartment of the baths, the house of Pomone or the room of the duchess of Stamps.
- Portrait of the doge Andrea Gritti of the Titien.
Sciences & technology
- the Italian Mathématicien Lodovico Ferrari develops a method to solve the equations of the fourth degree.
Economy & company
Construction of the first mill with sugar with the Brazil.
- the first Potato of South America was sent to the pope Paul III.
- the Indian rupee, hitherto in balk (copper and money), is struck out of money, which flows from occident.
- the Castille provides on average a billion Maravédis of tax per annum: alcabala (1/2), servicio (1/6), quinto réal (1/6), fields (1/6). The Aragon pays only the servicio voted by the the Cortes (35 million maravédis). The Netherlands provide 200 million maravédis, voted by the General states, with Charles Quint.
- Foundation of the purse of Hamburg.
- Economic depression in England.
- Tuscan Food shortage in . Ships arrived at Leghorn with corns of Raising save the country.
- Taken again trade of spices in the Mediterranean with the essential profit of Venice.
Births in 1540
Death in 1540
- May 22nd: François Guichardin (Francesco Guicciardini), lawyer, politician and historian Florentin (° 1483)
- June 28th: Frederic II of Mantoue, noble Italian, marquis then duke of Mantoue, marquis de Montferrat (° May 17th 1500, 40 years)
- August 22nd: Guillaume Budé (Paris (° 1467)
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
Be-X-old: 1540 Map-bms: 1540 Simple: 1540
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