This page relates to the year 1536 Calendrier Julien.
- February 3rd: The Spanish conquistador Pedro de Mendoza founds the town of Nuestra Senora LED Buenos Aires (Argentine). He runs up more against the north with the Indians Guaraní S who intend to conquer the heights of the Bolivia and of the current Paraguay. They are hard warriors, Masters of the lasso, and the losses which they inflict to the Spaniards are considerable. In their projection, Guaranis pushed back, coming from the east, the tribes Arawak S, and after having conquered one of the scraps of the ex- Empire INCA, run up against the Spaniards. For better resisting to them, the Indian tribes are linked under the aegis of the Chiriguanos, most active of Guaranis. Pedro de Mendoza leaves the command to Juan de Ayolas and is re-embarked for the Spain. He dies on the way of the return (June 24th 1537).
- April 18th: Rebellion INCA with the Peru. Beginning of the reign of Manco Capac II, sovereign INCA (fine in 1545) which organizes the war against Spanish through all the country. Lima and Cuzco is besieged, but the Indian army, for lack of preparation, must be folded up.
- April: Departure of the forwarding of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada in Colombia for the account of Alonso Fernandez de Lugo. It starts from Santa Marta with 700 indigenous Spaniards and 3000 auxiliaries (avril) and goes up with difficulty the river Magdalena with an aim of reaching legendary the Eldorado. It loses many men and plunders in the passing of the indigenous tombs. He arrives in the empire of the Chibcha where he is well accommodated. He finds Zipaquira, the capital of Bogota, Zipa of the Chibcha, deserted. The temples of the city are covered with gold and emeralds. The Spaniards torture the inhabitants to know the source of gold. Those send them more to the south, but they do not find anything. On the way of the return to Zipaquira, Quesada meets forwardings of Sebastián de Belalcázar, come from Quito and Nikolaus Federmann, come from Coro, with the Venezuela and working for the Welser (1538).
- June 27th: Pedro de Alvarado founds San Pedro Sula with the Honduras.
- July 25th: Sebastián de Belalcázar founds Santiago de Cali in Colombia.
- Jacques Cartier approaches with the islands Saint-Pierre-and-Miquelon.
- Beginning of the conquest of the grounds constituting the current Chile, against the Indians Araucan S, by Spanish, led by Diego de Almagro then Pedro de Valdivia.
Asia & Indian world
The Middle East & Arab World
- March 15th: Soliman the Magnificent the, influenced by his wife Roxelane, who managed to convince it of the treason of her large Vizier Ibrahim Pasha, makes assassinate this one and will name (later) in its place his/her son-in-law (the husband of its daughter Mihrimah), Rüstem Pasha.
- Hassan Aga becomes beylerbey of Algiers (fine in 1544)
- Aldine Khayr entrusts the capacity to Algiers with Hassan Aga and goes to Istanbul from where it will direct, until its death in 1546, military operations against the Spaniards.
- Beginning of the reign of Lubatko, Mbang of the Baguirmi (fine in 1548).
- Ahmed Gragne completes the conquest of the Abyssinie, except for some mountainous regions where took refuge the Négus David II and its partisans. The country is devastated so much so that the invaders themselves suffer from the famine.
- January: The French troops invade the Savoy. The dukes of Savoy lose Geneva and their territories Suisse S.
- February: the Piedmont east invades. Charles Quint proposes with François Ier to regulate differ to them by a duel.
- February 4th: France is combined with the Othoman S (treated Capitulations). The treaty is possible thanks to the action of the Séfarade Joseph Nasi which directs the diplomacy of the Sultan, nephew of Gave Gracia Nasi (1510 - 1568).
- April 5th: Charles Quint (Charles V), come from Tunis, makes a triumphal entry in Rome.
- 21 - May 28th: Harmony of Wittenberg, common text between Luther and Martin Bucer.
- May 23rd: Establishment of the Enquiry to the Portugal.
- June: Charles Quint passes the Col of Tightens in the back-country of Nice, crosses the Var with 90 000 men and devastation the Provence.
- Charles Quint makes the seat of Marseilles. practical Anne de Montmorency successfully against him the scorched earth policy (June-September). A truce is possible via Paul III Farnèse.
- the imperial troops of Artois try to invade the Picardy but are stopped by the French troops.
- August 10th: Henri of Orleans becomes heir to the throne of France with died of his/her older brother François with Tournon. The Brittany becomes definitively a French province.
- September: The Spaniards must leave France without to have fought the least battle.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Bratislava (Presbourg) becomes the capital of the royal Hungary (1536 - 1830). It becomes the seat of the Hungarian diet, the Room which manages the royal properties and incomes, of the council of the government and other administrations.
- August 6th: Christian III of Denmark enters to Copenhagen. It makes stop all the bishops of the kingdom and confiscates their goods, which enables him to pay its troops (August 11th). The August 12th, it convenes the advisers of the kingdom and proposes to them to exclude the bishops from the Council.
- October: Christian III joins together the Diet of the lords with Copenhagen: The Luthéranisme becomes religion of State to the Denmark (adoption of the Confession of Augsburg like official creed ). Superintendents named by the king, who carries the title of highest episcopus , replace the bishops instituted by Rome. The Réforme is badly accepted in Iceland but is preached without opposition in Norway.
- Christian III abolishes the personal Union. There exists nothing any more from now on but one kingdom and that only one government. The Norway becomes a province of the kingdom of Denmark.
- Synod of Uppsala. The Gospel must be preached without delay, the Swedish mass must be introduced into all the churches of the kingdom and the formulas of the Swedish missal must be used as a basis for all the ceremonies.
- May 19th: Anne Boleyn, condemned to died for adultery is carried out.
- May 30th: Henri VIII wife Jane Seymour.
- October 10th: Pilgrimage of Grace (end in February 1537), movement of religious and social revolt in the north of the England (Lincolnshire and Yorkshire) following the secularizations achieved by Thomas Cromwell, which worsen the fate of the farmers and remove alms. The darcies and Percy, large remained faithful to the pope, gather 30 000 people who occupy York and ask for the restoration of the Roman authority. They go towards the south. The duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard disperses them at the price of some promises and in makes carry out the leaders.
- October 29th: Crowning of Jane Seymour.
- nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Henri VIII of England orders the secularization of the goods of the monasteries. Thomas Cromwell, named Lord of the private and principal seal advised of the king, is in charge of the confiscation of the monasteries (end in 1538). He is the craftsman of alliance with the German Protestants against Charles Quint.
- Thomas Cromwell promulgates the Confession of faith in ten articles , influenced by the Protestantism, which limits the sacraments to three (Baptême, Eucharistie and Pénitence) and made Bible the supreme authority as regards faith.
- the Wales is integrated into the legal systems and administrative English by a series of statutes (1536 - 1543).
- Calvin publishes in Basle “ Institution of the Christian religion ”. Editions revised appear 1539 with Strasbourg, then in 1543, 1550, 1554 and 1559. Calvin translated to him even his work of Latin into French.
- Swiss Confession, of Myconius. Zurich (Henrich Bullinger) adheres to it.
- Olaus $petri translates into Swedish the Petit catechism of Luther (1536 - 1537).
- Foundation of the monatères of the Great Meteor and Varlaam.
Arts & cultures
- Henri VIII establishes on the remainders of the monastic schools a great number of colleges and colleges with Oxford (Church Christ, started with Thomas Wolsey) and with Cambridge (Trinity).
Etienne Dolet publishes comments on the ancient authors and the Latin language.
- the poet Clément Marot publishes his French version of the Psaumes .
- Michel-Angel carries out the '' last Jugement '' for the Chapelle Sixtine (fine in 1541).
- Iacopo Sansovino builds the Libreria Vecchia (Bibliothèque San Marco) with Venice.
Sciences and technology
Economy & company
- In Spain, the double escudo or sprays (6,75 G of gold) replaces the ducat (3,50 G of gold).
- poverty develops in England. To mitigate the effects of the secularization of the monasteries which dries up a source of alms, a law orders the reference of the poor in their parish of origin and prohibits vagrancy and the begging. The poor owe beings helped by the parishes on the collected funds Sunday.
- the fields of the Church account for 13% of the cultivable grounds to the Denmark.
- Treated Capitulations: The French obtain the quasi-monopoly of the trade with the Raising and organize the trade of the Scales thanks to French consulates judging all the conflicts between Christians whatever their nationalities. The French import cloths and import wools, leathers and spices.
Births in 1536
- December 26th: I I, well-read man confucéen Korea N († 1584, 48 years)
- Antoine Loysel: celebrate French jurisconsult, raises Cujas.
Death in 1536
- February 25th: Jacob Hutter, anabatist Tyrolean, burned for heresy.
- March 15th: Ibrahim Pasha, large Vizier of the Othoman sultan Soliman the Magnificent the.
- May 19th: Anne Boleyn, queen of England decapitated by the king Henry VIII of England.
- August 10th: François III, duke of Brittany and dolphin of France.
- October 6th: The reformer William Tyndale is burned like heretic.
- October 14th: Garcilaso of Vega, Spanish lyric poet (born in 1503).
- Lefèvre d' Etaples, Theologist, Humanistic and editor French.
Be-X-old: 1536 Map-bms: 1536 Simple: 1536
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