This page relates to the year 1453 Calendrier Julien and marks the end of the Middle Ages.
The Middle East
- Mahmoud pasha becomes top dog of the Ottoman Empire (1453 - 1468, then 1472 - 1473).
- Commercial treaty between Venice and the pasha of Karamanie which ensures to him a complete commercial freedom in its States.
- After the Chute of Constantinople the Arménie NS of the Turkish part are reorganized under the domination of the Armenian bishop of Brousse which takes the title of patriarch. They obtain a great religious, cultural and political autonomy.
- Beginning of the reign of Uzun Hassan, sultan of the Ak Koyunlu (fine in 1478). The Ak Koyunlu extend to depend on the Kara Koyunlu.
- January: Majority of Ladislas V Posthumous the, which becomes archduke of Austria (January) then king of Hungary (February). Jean Hunyadi gives up the title of governor of Hungary and is named general captain and captain of Nándorfehérvár, then count of Temes. A few months later, the king entrusts the responsibility for the businesses of Hungary to Hunyadi, those of Austria with Ulrich de Cillei and those of Bohemia to Georges de Podiebrady.
- April 2nd: Mehmet II is presented in front of Constantinople with a powerful army. It encounters a savage resistance but the use of modern guns and boats came to end from defenses from the city.
- April 20th: Battle off Constantinople.
- May 20th: Constantin XI Paleologist who directed defense falls during the final attack.
- May 29th: catch of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire; end of the Roman Empire of the East (called Byzantine since).
- For some Historiographer S, this event marks the Fin the Middle Ages and the advent of the modern time in Europe.
- Europe had sent only 400 soldiers. Venice, installed with Péra, on other bank of the Horn of Gold, is declared neutral.
- Annexation by the Turks of the Venetian cities of southernmost Egée.
- Genoa loses its counter of Péra, vis-a-vis Constantinople.
- Venice plans to annex the Morée after the fall of Constantinople. It gives up it by fear of complications with the Turks.
- Georges Scholarios, one of the most savage opponents of the Union of the Churches, is placed by the sultan on patriarchal throne of Constantinople.
- October 28th: Ladislas V Posthumous the is crowned king of Bohemia.
Beginning of the conquest of the Bosnia by the Othoman (fine in 1499).
- Dimitri Chemiaka is poisoned with Novgorod.
- Moscow becomes the capital of orthodoxy. The orthodoxe Russian Church regards the city as “third Rome”, heiress of Constantinople as a center of Christian orthodoxy. The eagle with two heads of Byzance is incorporated in the weapons of the Moscovie and is regarded as the symbol of holy the Russia.
- Invention of the mobile characters by Johannes Gutenberg
Series of poor grape harvest in the Rhenish vineyard consecutive at cold summers (1453-1462).
- April 12th: The condottiere Colleoni (1400 - 1475) gives up Milan (February 15th) and becomes general captain with life of Venice.
- June 2nd: The constable Alvaro de Luna, minister of Jean II of Castille, is reversed and carried out.
the pope preaches the crusade against the Turks.
- a brief of the pope Nicolas V prohibits the slavery of the Christians.
- Revolt of the barons against the Aragonese capacity in the kingdom of Naples (fine in 1454). Overcome, they must pay heavy fines which enrich the royal treasure.
- May 29th: Judgment of Jacques Heart with Lusignan. Its goods are put under sequestration, and the palate which it made build with Bourges becomes possession of the king.
- June 16th: Philippe the Good, duke of Burgundy offers the seigniory of Beaumont to Antoine de Croy of compensation for the financial participation of this one to the war which it delivered to the Gantois. Unfortunately, Antoine could enjoy his seigniory only in 1472 because it was confiscated by the count de Charolais (the future Charles Bold the).
- July 17th: Battle of Castillon: the French army overrides the English, and puts an end to the Guerre One hundred Year old (1337 - 1453). Conquest of the Guyenne by Xaintrailles.
- October 19th: the French enter Bordeaux, putting fine at three centuries of English presence in the city. The English preserve nothing any more but Calais in France.
nonwell informed or unknown Dates :
- Creation of the Parliament of Grenoble.
Art & culture
- Publication of the Peace of the faith ( Of pace fidei ) of Nicolas of CUSE .
- the Othoman vizier Mahmoud Pasha, renegade of Greek origin, animates a circle of intellectuals (Enveri, Tursun Bey, Qaramani Mehmed Pasha, Saryge Kemal, Sükrüllah bin Sehabeddin Ahmed…).
- the sculptor Florentin Donatello carries out the equestrian statue of the condottiere Gattamelata with Padoue, first large equestrian bronze statue realized since the Antiquité.
- Laurent de Médicis entrusts to Baldovinetti the restoration of the baptistry of Florence (mosaic).
- Construction of the Rucellai Palate, with Florence, by Domenico Alberti.
Science & technology
- Of the mathematical complements of Nicolas of CUSE.
- the catch of Constantinople at possible summer in particular thanks to the manufacture of a gun able to draw from the iron balls from 600 kilos.
Economy & company
- Charles VII of France raises the restrictions opposed to the descent of the wines of the Highland on Bordeaux. In front of the bankruptcy of the trade Of Bordeaux, the restriction is given into force the April 11th 1454.
the catch of Constantinople destabilizes the trade flows and reduces the benefit of the Italian merchants.
the population of Constantinople is estimated then at only 36 000 inhabitants for a city which with can be reached the million about the 11th century. The city is with the abandonment. The large palace, the Hippodrome, certain churches are in ruins, from the districts are deserted while fields, vines, gardens or waste lands develop to with it.
massive Escape of the intellectuals and most of the Byzantine leading class, especially the middle-class class, towards the occident and the areas occupied by Venice.
Births in 1453
Death in 1453
- May 29th: Constantin XI Paleologist, last Byzantine Emperor.
- July 17th: John Talbot dies in the Bataille of Castillon
- December 24th: John Dunstable, English type-setter (born v. 1390).
Be-X-old: 1453 Map-bms: 1453
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